Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity

Binder D, Drepper T, Jaeger K-E, Delvigne F, Wiechert W, Kohlheyer D, Grünberger A (2017)
METABOLIC ENGINEERING 42: 145-156.

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Abstract / Bemerkung
In natural habitats, microbes form multispecies communities that commonly face rapidly changing and highly competitive environments. Thus, phenotypic heterogeneity has evolved as an innate and important survival strategy to gain an overall fitness advantage over cohabiting competitors. However, in defined artificial environments such as monocultures in small-to large-scale bioreactors, cell-to-cell variations are presumed to cause reduced production yields as well as process instability. Hence, engineering microbial production toward phenotypic homogeneity is a highly promising approach for synthetic biology and bioprocess optimization. In this review, we discuss recent studies that have unraveled the cell-to-cell heterogeneity observed during bacterial gene expression and metabolite production as well as the molecular mechanisms involved. In addition, current single-cell technologies are briefly reviewed with respect to their applicability in exploring cell-to-cell variations. We highlight emerging strategies and tools to reduce phenotypic heterogeneity in biotechnological expression setups. Here, strain or inducer modifications are combined with cell physiology manipulations to achieve the ultimate goal of equalizing bacterial populations. In this way, the majority of cells can be forced into high productivity, thus reducing less productive subpopulations that tend to consume valuable resources during production. Modifications in uptake systems, inducer molecules or nutrients represent valuable tools for diminishing heterogeneity. Finally, we address the challenge of transferring homogeneously responding cells into large-scale bioprocesses. Environmental heterogeneity originating from extrinsic factors such as stirring speed and pH, oxygen, temperature or nutrient distribution can significantly influence cellular physiology. We conclude that engineering microbial populations toward phenotypic homogeneity is an increasingly important task to take biotechnological productions to the next level of control.
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METABOLIC ENGINEERING
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42
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145-156
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Binder D, Drepper T, Jaeger K-E, et al. Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity. METABOLIC ENGINEERING. 2017;42:145-156.
Binder, D., Drepper, T., Jaeger, K. - E., Delvigne, F., Wiechert, W., Kohlheyer, D., & Grünberger, A. (2017). Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity. METABOLIC ENGINEERING, 42, 145-156. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2017.06.009
Binder, D., Drepper, T., Jaeger, K. - E., Delvigne, F., Wiechert, W., Kohlheyer, D., and Grünberger, A. (2017). Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity. METABOLIC ENGINEERING 42, 145-156.
Binder, D., et al., 2017. Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity. METABOLIC ENGINEERING, 42, p 145-156.
D. Binder, et al., “Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity”, METABOLIC ENGINEERING, vol. 42, 2017, pp. 145-156.
Binder, D., Drepper, T., Jaeger, K.-E., Delvigne, F., Wiechert, W., Kohlheyer, D., Grünberger, A.: Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity. METABOLIC ENGINEERING. 42, 145-156 (2017).
Binder, Dennis, Drepper, Thomas, Jaeger, Karl-Erich, Delvigne, Frank, Wiechert, Wolfgang, Kohlheyer, Dietrich, and Grünberger, Alexander. “Homogenizing bacterial cell factories: Analysis and engineering of phenotypic heterogeneity”. METABOLIC ENGINEERING 42 (2017): 145-156.

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