Placebo effects in children: a review

Weimer K, Gulewitsch MD, Schlarb A, Schwille-Kiuntke J, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P (2013)
Pediatric Research 74(1): 96-102.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Weimer, Katja; Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Schlarb, AngelikaUniBi; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Enck, Paul
Abstract / Bemerkung
Of more than 155,000 PubMed citations found with the search term “placebo,” only ~9,000 (5.8%) included the terms “children” or “adolescents.” When all these papers were screened, only ~2,000 of them investigated the placebo effect per se, and of those, only ~50 (2.5%) discussed the placebo effect in children and adolescents. In this narrative review, we explore four aspects of the placebo response in children and adolescents: (i) the legal and ethical limitations and restrictions for the inclusion of children in clinical trials as well as in experimental (placebo) research that may explain the poor knowledge base; (ii) the question of whether or not the placebo effect is larger in children and adolescents as compared with adults; (iii) whether the mechanisms underlying the placebo effect are similar between children and adults; and (iv) whether mediators and moderators of the placebo effect are comparable between children and adults. We finally discuss some of the consequences from the current placebo research in adults that may affect both experimental and clinical research in children and adolescents.
Pediatric Research
Page URI


Weimer K, Gulewitsch MD, Schlarb A, Schwille-Kiuntke J, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P. Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research. 2013;74(1):96-102.
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M. D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., & Enck, P. (2013). Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research, 74(1), 96-102. doi:10.1038/pr.2013.66
Weimer, Katja, Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel, Schlarb, Angelika, Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane, Klosterhalfen, Sibylle, and Enck, Paul. 2013. “Placebo effects in children: a review”. Pediatric Research 74 (1): 96-102.
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M. D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., and Enck, P. (2013). Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research 74, 96-102.
Weimer, K., et al., 2013. Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research, 74(1), p 96-102.
K. Weimer, et al., “Placebo effects in children: a review”, Pediatric Research, vol. 74, 2013, pp. 96-102.
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M.D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., Enck, P.: Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research. 74, 96-102 (2013).
Weimer, Katja, Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel, Schlarb, Angelika, Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane, Klosterhalfen, Sibylle, and Enck, Paul. “Placebo effects in children: a review”. Pediatric Research 74.1 (2013): 96-102.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Copyright Statement:
Dieses Objekt ist durch das Urheberrecht und/oder verwandte Schutzrechte geschützt. [...]
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
MD5 Prüfsumme

41 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

The effect of placebo on endurance capacity in normal weight children - a randomized trial.
Fanti-Oren S, Birenbaum-Carmeli D, Eliakim A, Pantanowitz M, Nemet D., BMC Pediatr 19(1), 2019
PMID: 30630461
Placebo Effects in Psychotherapy: A Framework.
Enck P, Zipfel S., Front Psychiatry 10(), 2019
PMID: 31293462
N-Acetylcysteine for Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior in Adolescents: An Open-Label Pilot Study.
Cullen KR, Klimes-Dougan B, Westlund Schreiner M, Carstedt P, Marka N, Nelson K, Miller MJ, Reigstad K, Westervelt A, Gunlicks-Stoessel M, Eberly LE., J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 28(2), 2018
PMID: 29053023
The research gap in chronic paediatric pain: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
Boulkedid R, Abdou AY, Desselas E, Monégat M, de Leeuw TG, Avez-Couturier J, Dugue S, Mareau C, Charron B, Alberti C, Kaguelidou F, GAPP Consortium., Eur J Pain 22(2), 2018
PMID: 29105908
EPs 7630 is effective and safe in children under 6 years with acute respiratory tract infections: clinical studies revisited.
Kamin W, Funk P, Seifert G, Zimmermann A, Lehmacher W., Curr Med Res Opin 34(3), 2018
PMID: 29119837
The Short-Term Placebo Response in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Cohen A, Plonsky-Toder M, Tirosh E., J Child Neurol 33(5), 2018
PMID: 29451082
How to address the placebo response in the prescription SSRIs and SNRIs in children and adolescents.
Koechlin H, Kossowsky J, Gaab J, Locher C., Expert Opin Drug Saf 17(6), 2018
PMID: 29781324
The Management of Paediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: Latest Evidence.
Brusaferro A, Farinelli E, Zenzeri L, Cozzali R, Esposito S., Paediatr Drugs 20(3), 2018
PMID: 29497992
Lockhart KL, Keil FC., Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 83(2), 2018
PMID: 29668058
Composition and Use of Cannabis Extracts for Childhood Epilepsy in the Australian Community.
Suraev A, Lintzeris N, Stuart J, Kevin RC, Blackburn R, Richards E, Arnold JC, Ireland C, Todd L, Allsop DJ, McGregor IS., Sci Rep 8(1), 2018
PMID: 29977078
Is the perceived placebo effect comparable between adults and children? A meta-regression analysis.
Janiaud P, Cornu C, Lajoinie A, Djemli A, Cucherat M, Kassai B., Pediatr Res 81(1-1), 2017
PMID: 27648807
Arbaclofen in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized, Controlled, Phase 2 Trial.
Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Cook EH, King BH, Zarevics P, Cherubini M, Walton-Bowen K, Bear MF, Wang PP, Carpenter RL., Neuropsychopharmacology 42(7), 2017
PMID: 27748740
Parental Attitudes About Placebo Use in Children.
Faria V, Kossowsky J, Petkov MP, Kaptchuk TJ, Kirsch I, Lebel A, Borsook D., J Pediatr 181(), 2017
PMID: 27863847
The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Hoekman DR, Zeevenhooven J, van Etten-Jamaludin FS, Douwes Dekker I, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM, Vlieger AM., J Pediatr 182(), 2017
PMID: 28081889
Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?
Farid-Kapadia M, Askie L, Hartling L, Contopoulos-Ioannidis D, Bhutta ZA, Soll R, Moher D, Offringa M., BMC Pediatr 17(1), 2017
PMID: 28260530
The clinical presentation of coeliac disease in 1030 Swedish children: Changing features over the past four decades.
Tapsas D, Hollén E, Stenhammar L, Fälth-Magnusson K., Dig Liver Dis 48(1), 2016
PMID: 26520057
Update on Pediatric Cough.
Kantar A., Lung 194(1), 2016
PMID: 26455825
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Muszkat D, Polanczyk GV, Dias TG, Brunoni AR., J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 26(7), 2016
PMID: 27027666
The placebo effect: is it unethical to use it or unethical not to?
Elliott DB., Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 36(5), 2016
PMID: 27580752
Placebo and nocebo responses in drug trials of epilepsy.
Zaccara G, Giovannelli F, Schmidt D., Epilepsy Behav 43(), 2015
PMID: 25703333
[Communication with children: practical hints and tools for the anesthesiology routine].
Zech N, Seemann M, Signer-Fischer S, Hansen E., Anaesthesist 64(3), 2015
PMID: 25776207
Electrocortical effects of a disgust placebo in children.
Übel S, Leutgeb V, Schienle A., Biol Psychol 108(), 2015
PMID: 25829106
Safety, clinical, and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2) for food allergy.
Wang J, Jones SM, Pongracic JA, Song Y, Yang N, Sicherer SH, Makhija MM, Robison RG, Moshier E, Godbold J, Sampson HA, Li XM., J Allergy Clin Immunol 136(4), 2015
PMID: 26044855
Failed Pediatric Drug Development Trials.
Momper JD, Mulugeta Y, Burckart GJ., Clin Pharmacol Ther 98(3), 2015
PMID: 25963725
Placebo effects and their determinants in gastrointestinal disorders.
Elsenbruch S, Enck P., Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 12(8), 2015
PMID: 26194942
Placebo Responses in Genetically Determined Intellectual Disability: A Meta-Analysis.
Curie A, Yang K, Kirsch I, Gollub RL, des Portes V, Kaptchuk TJ, Jensen KB., PLoS One 10(7), 2015
PMID: 26226597
Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Epilepsy.
Friedman D, Devinsky O., N Engl J Med 373(11), 2015
PMID: 26352816
Cannabinoids and Epilepsy.
Rosenberg EC, Tsien RW, Whalley BJ, Devinsky O., Neurotherapeutics 12(4), 2015
PMID: 26282273
Pain and placebo in pediatrics: a comprehensive review of laboratory and clinical findings.
Simmons K, Ortiz R, Kossowsky J, Krummenacher P, Grillon C, Pine D, Colloca L., Pain 155(11), 2014
PMID: 25180010
Adverse events, placebo and nocebo effects in placebo-treated paediatric patients with refractory focal epilepsies. Analysis of double-blind studies.
Zaccara G, Giovannelli F, Franco V, Cincotta M, Tramacere L, Verrotti A., Epilepsy Res 108(10), 2014
PMID: 25288026
Expectancy-induced placebo analgesia in children and the role of magical thinking.
Krummenacher P, Kossowsky J, Schwarz C, Brugger P, Kelley JM, Meyer A, Gaab J., J Pain 15(12), 2014
PMID: 25261340

83 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

[Placebo response and placebo effect: mechanisms, mediators, moderators].
Enck P, Klosterhalfen S., Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol 62(6), 2012
PMID: 22638950
New insights into the placebo and nocebo responses.
Enck P, Benedetti F, Schedlowski M., Neuron 59(2), 2008
PMID: 18667148
Mechanisms involved in placebo and nocebo responses and implications for drug trials.
Rief W, Bingel U, Schedlowski M, Enck P., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 90(5), 2011
PMID: 21975346
Placebo response in asthma: a robust and objective phenomenon.
Kemeny ME, Rosenwasser LJ, Panettieri RA, Rose RM, Berg-Smith SM, Kline JN., J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119(6), 2007
PMID: 17451796

Weimer, Z Med Psychol 19(), 2010
Do "placebo responders" exist?
Kaptchuk TJ, Kelley JM, Deykin A, Wayne PM, Lasagna LC, Epstein IO, Kirsch I, Wechsler ME., Contemp Clin Trials 29(4), 2008
PMID: 18378192


AUTHOR UNKNOWN, Pediatrics 95(), 1995

When do the federal regulations allow placebo-controlled trials in children?
Miller FG, Wendler D, Wilfond B., J. Pediatr. 142(2), 2003
PMID: 12584527
The ethical use of placebo in clinical trials involving children.
Derivan AT, Leventhal BL, March J, Wolraich M, Zito JM., J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14(2), 2004
PMID: 15319014
Ethical considerations in conducting pediatric research.
Roth-Cline M, Gerson J, Bright P, Lee CS, Nelson RM., Handb Exp Pharmacol 205(), 2011
PMID: 21882114
Ethical aspects of placebo in migraine research.
Linde M, May A, Limmroth V, Dahlof C; Headache Masters Programme., Cephalalgia 23(7), 2003
PMID: 12950373

The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers.
Enck P, Klosterhalfen S, Weimer K, Horing B, Zipfel S., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366(1572), 2011
PMID: 21576146
Placebo response in randomized controlled trials of antidepressants for pediatric major depressive disorder.
Bridge JA, Birmaher B, Iyengar S, Barbe RP, Brent DA., Am J Psychiatry 166(1), 2008
PMID: 19047322
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression.
Emslie GJ, Rush AJ, Weinberg WA, Kowatch RA, Hughes CW, Carmody T, Rintelmann J., Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 54(11), 1997
PMID: 9366660
Are there placebo effects in the medication treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Waschbusch DA, Pelham WE Jr, Waxmonsky J, Johnston C., J Dev Behav Pediatr 30(2), 2009
PMID: 19363369
A review of the pharmacotherapy of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Wilens TE, Spencer TJ, Biederman J., J Atten Disord 5(4), 2002
PMID: 11967475
[ADHD in adulthood--guidelines based on expert consensus with DGPPN support]
Ebert D, Krause J, Roth-Sackenheim C., Nervenarzt 74(10), 2003
PMID: 14655655
Multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of amitriptyline in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.
Saps M, Youssef N, Miranda A, Nurko S, Hyman P, Cocjin J, Di Lorenzo C., Gastroenterology 137(4), 2009
PMID: 19596010
The power of placebo in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disease.
Benninga MA, Mayer EA., Gastroenterology 137(4), 2009
PMID: 19717127
Placebo responses and placebo effects in functional bowel disorders.
Enck P, Horing B, Weimer K, Klosterhalfen S., Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 24(1), 2012
PMID: 21915059
Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.
Cohen D, Deniau E, Maturana A, Tanguy ML, Bodeau N, Labelle R, Breton JJ, Guile JM., PLoS ONE 3(7), 2008
PMID: 18612460
Placebo effect in child and adolescent psychiatric trials.
Parellada M, Moreno C, Moreno M, Espliego A, de Portugal E, Arango C., Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 22(11), 2011
PMID: 22030230
Meta-analysis of homoeopathy trials.
Ernst E, Barnes J., Lancet 351(9099), 1998
PMID: 9652640
Placebo reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children.
Vlieg-Boerstra BJ, van der Heide S, Bijleveld CM, Kukler J, Duiverman EJ, Dubois AE., Allergy 62(8), 2007
PMID: 17620068
Mechanisms of the placebo effect of sweet cough syrups.
Eccles R., Respir Physiol Neurobiol 152(3), 2005
PMID: 16326149

Placebo analgesia induced by social observational learning.
Colloca L, Benedetti F., Pain 144(1-2), 2009
PMID: 19278785
A link between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms, amygdala activity, and placebo-induced relief from social anxiety.
Furmark T, Appel L, Henningsson S, Ahs F, Faria V, Linnman C, Pissiota A, Frans O, Bani M, Bettica P, Pich EM, Jacobsson E, Wahlstedt K, Oreland L, Langstrom B, Eriksson E, Fredrikson M., J. Neurosci. 28(49), 2008
PMID: 19052197
Monoamine oxidase a and catechol-o-methyltransferase functional polymorphisms and the placebo response in major depressive disorder.
Leuchter AF, McCracken JT, Hunter AM, Cook IA, Alpert JE., J Clin Psychopharmacol 29(4), 2009
PMID: 19593178
Conditioned pain modulation is associated with common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene.
Lindstedt F, Berrebi J, Greayer E, Lonsdorf TB, Schalling M, Ingvar M, Kosek E., PLoS ONE 6(3), 2011
PMID: 21464942
Anticipatory symptoms and anticipatory immune responses in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: features of a classically conditioned response?
Stockhorst U, Spennes-Saleh S, Korholz D, Gobel U, Schneider ME, Steingruber HJ, Klosterhalfen S., Brain Behav. Immun. 14(3), 2000
PMID: 10970680
Placebo effects in developmental disabilities: implications for research and practice.
Sandler A., Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 11(2), 2005
PMID: 15977316
Zolmitriptan oral tablet in migraine treatment: high placebo responses in adolescents.
Rothner AD, Wasiewski W, Winner P, Lewis D, Stankowski J., Headache 46(1), 2006
PMID: 16412157
Blindness of clinical evaluators, parents, and children in a placebo-controlled trial of fluvoxamine.
Vitiello B, Davis M, Greenhill LL, Pine DS., J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 16(1-2), 2006
PMID: 16553542
Deconstructing pediatric depression trials: an analysis of the effects of expectancy and therapeutic contact.
Rutherford BR, Sneed JR, Tandler JM, Rindskopf D, Peterson BS, Roose SP., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(8), 2011
PMID: 21784298
Classic conditioning and placebo effects in crossover studies.
Suchman AL, Ader R., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 52(4), 1992
PMID: 1424409
Contribution of spontaneous improvement to placebo response in depression: a meta-analytic review.
Rutherford BR, Mori S, Sneed JR, Pimontel MA, Roose SP., J Psychiatr Res 46(6), 2012
PMID: 22410207
Patient and practitioner influences on the placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome.
Kelley JM, Lembo AJ, Ablon JS, Villanueva JJ, Conboy LA, Levy R, Marci CD, Kerr CE, Kirsch I, Jacobson EE, Riess H, Kaptchuk TJ., Psychosom Med 71(7), 2009
PMID: 19661195
The placebo response to citric acid-induced cough: pharmacodynamics and gender differences.
Rostami-Hodjegan A, Abdul-Manap R, Wright CE, Tucker GT, Morice AH., Pulm Pharmacol Ther 14(4), 2001
PMID: 11440560
Gender differences in placebo analgesia: event-related potentials and emotional modulation.
Aslaksen PM, Bystad M, Vambheim SM, Flaten MA., Psychosom Med 73(2), 2011
PMID: 21217098
Children's ibuprofen suspension for the acute treatment of pediatric migraine.
Lewis DW, Kellstein D, Dahl G, Burke B, Frank LM, Toor S, Northam RS, White LW, Lawson L., Headache 42(8), 2002
PMID: 12390641
Hypnobo: perspectives on hypnosis and placebo.
Raz A., Am J Clin Hypn 50(1), 2007
PMID: 17685242
Dispositional optimism predicts placebo analgesia.
Geers AL, Wellman JA, Fowler SL, Helfer SG, France CR., J Pain 11(11), 2010
PMID: 20627818
Clinical trials of antidepressants: the hidden face: where locus of control appears to play a key role in depression outcome.
Reynaert C, Janne P, Vause M, Zdanowicz N, Lejeune D., Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 119(4), 1995
PMID: 7480525
The relation of emotions to placebo responses.
Flaten MA, Aslaksen PM, Lyby PS, Bjorkedal E., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366(1572), 2011
PMID: 21576139
The interaction of locus of control, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy in relation to HbA1c in medically underserved individuals with type 2 diabetes.
O'Hea EL, Moon S, Grothe KB, Boudreaux E, Bodenlos JS, Wallston K, Brantley PJ., J Behav Med 32(1), 2008
PMID: 19089606
A systematic review of bio-psychosocial risk factors for an unfavourable outcome after lumbar disc surgery.
den Boer JJ, Oostendorp RA, Beems T, Munneke M, Oerlemans M, Evers AW., Eur Spine J 15(5), 2005
PMID: 15915334
Characteristics of placebo responders in pediatric clinical trials of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Newcorn JH, Sutton VK, Zhang S, Wilens T, Kratochvil C, Emslie GJ, D'souza DN, Schuh LM, Allen AJ., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48(12), 2009
PMID: 19858759
Predictors of placebo response in randomized controlled trials of psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents with internalizing disorders.
Cohen D, Consoli A, Bodeau N, Purper-Ouakil D, Deniau E, Guile JM, Donnelly C., J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 20(1), 2010
PMID: 20166795
Placebo response in aggressive children with conduct disorder.
Sanchez LE, Armenteros JL, Small AM, Campbell M, Adams PB., Psychopharmacol Bull 30(2), 1994
PMID: 7831457
Parental beliefs and worries regarding adolescent chronic pain.
Guite JW, Logan DE, McCue R, Sherry DD, Rose JB., Clin J Pain 25(3), 2009
PMID: 19333173
Common burden of chronic skin diseases? Contributors to psychological distress in adults with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
Evers AW, Lu Y, Duller P, van der Valk PG, Kraaimaat FW, van de Kerkhof PC., Br. J. Dermatol. 152(6), 2005
PMID: 15948993
The placebo responder rate in children and adolescents.
Lewis DW, Winner P, Wasiewski W., Headache 45(3), 2005
PMID: 15836598
Placebo by proxy.
Grelotti DJ, Kaptchuk TJ., BMJ 343(), 2011
PMID: 21835868

The relationship between perceived parental expectations and pediatrician antimicrobial prescribing behavior.
Mangione-Smith R, McGlynn EA, Elliott MN, Krogstad P, Brook RH., Pediatrics 103(4 Pt 1), 1999
PMID: 10103291
Meta-analysis of the placebo response in antidepressant trials.
Rief W, Nestoriuc Y, Weiss S, Welzel E, Barsky AJ, Hofmann SG., J Affect Disord 118(1-3), 2009
PMID: 19246102
The placebo response in medicine: minimize, maximize or personalize?
Enck P, Bingel U, Schedlowski M, Rief W., Nat Rev Drug Discov 12(3), 2013
PMID: 23449306
Conditioned pharmacotherapeutic effects: a preliminary study.
Ader R, Mercurio MG, Walton J, James D, Davis M, Ojha V, Kimball AB, Fiorentino D., Psychosom Med 72(2), 2009
PMID: 20028830
Conditioned placebo dose reduction: a new treatment in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Sandler AD, Glesne CE, Bodfish JW., J Dev Behav Pediatr 31(5), 2010
PMID: 20495473
Harnessing the placebo effect: the need for translational research.
Colloca L, Miller FG., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366(1572), 2011
PMID: 21576150
Induction of nocebo and placebo effects on itch and pain by verbal suggestions.
van Laarhoven AI, Vogelaar ML, Wilder-Smith OH, van Riel PL, van de Kerkhof PC, Kraaimaat FW, Evers AW., Pain 152(7), 2011
PMID: 21353388
An investigation of the placebo effect and age-related factors in the report of needle pain from venipuncture in children.
Goodenough B, Kampel L, Champion GD, Laubreaux L, Nicholas MK, Ziegler JB, McInerney M., Pain 72(3), 1997
PMID: 9313279
Children's and parents' perspectives on open-label use of placebos in the treatment of ADHD.
Sandler A, Glesne C, Geller G., Child Care Health Dev 34(1), 2008
PMID: 18171452
Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome.
Kaptchuk TJ, Friedlander E, Kelley JM, Sanchez MN, Kokkotou E, Singer JP, Kowalczykowski M, Miller FG, Kirsch I, Lembo AJ., PLoS ONE 5(12), 2010
PMID: 21203519
Novel study designs to investigate the placebo response.
Enck P, Klosterhalfen S, Zipfel S., BMC Med Res Methodol 11(), 2011
PMID: 21663609
A novel placebo-controlled clinical study design without ethical concerns - the free choice paradigm.
Enck P, Grundy D, Klosterhalfen S., Med. Hypotheses 79(6), 2012
PMID: 23089197
Gender and the nocebo response following conditioning and expectancy.
Klosterhalfen S, Kellermann S, Braun S, Kowalski A, Schrauth M, Zipfel S, Enck P., J Psychosom Res 66(4), 2009
PMID: 19302890
Are placebo-controlled trials still important for obsessive compulsive disorder?
Fineberg NA, Hawley CJ, Gale TM., Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 30(3), 2006
PMID: 16413647
Which factors predict placebo response in anxiety disorders and major depression? An analysis of placebo-controlled studies of escitalopram.
Stein DJ, Baldwin DS, Dolberg OT, Despiegel N, Bandelow B., J Clin Psychiatry 67(11), 2006
PMID: 17196054

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 23598811
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar