Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan

Ahmad F, Khan Z, Böckmann M, Khan MN, Siddiqi K, Ullah S, Zeeb H, Forberger S (2021)
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 23(9): 1498–1506.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
 
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Autor*in
Ahmad, Fayaz; Khan, Zohaib; Böckmann, MelanieUniBi ; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Siddiqi, Kamran; Ullah, Safat; Zeeb, Hajo; Forberger, Sarah
Abstract / Bemerkung
**Introduction**
Provision of alternate livelihoods to smokeless tobacco (SLT) supply chain (SC) actors can help in curtailing SLT business and its consumption. We explored the reasons for SC actors’ engagement in Naswar (SLT used in South Asia) business and their willingness to switch to other alternatives. **Aims and Methods**
We conducted an equal-status concurrent mixed-methods study in four districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. We surveyed 286 general points of sale (GPOS) and exclusive Naswar (EN) vendors through multistage cluster sampling. Additionally, we interviewed 15 tobacco farmers interpretively, being distinct from other SC actors. We assessed the association between vendors’ willingness to switch and their awareness about tobacco-harms, profit margin, Naswar as a family business, length of business, education level, and shop type using logistic regression. Qualitative data assessed the farmer’s viable alternatives to switch and were analyzed using deductive–inductive thematic analysis. **Results**
Product demand—77% and profit margins—75% were the main drivers for selling SLT by EN vendors. Half of the GPOS and 25% EN vendors expressed willingness to stop Naswar’s sale. Vendors aware of tobacco-harms were more willing to switch, but less likely to switch if Naswar was perceived to bring “good profit.” Farmers were mainly cultivating tobacco because of profitability, family-run farm, and perceived land-suitability for tobacco. Lack of government support was main constraint for farmers looking to switch. **Conclusions**
A considerable portion of Naswar SC actors in Pakistan are willing to switch to viable alternatives, with profitability of alternatives, support from authorities, and social obligations as key considerations in doing so. **Implications**
This study highlights that good profit margins in the Naswar business, lack of awareness of tobacco-related health harms, and absence of the government’s support are key detriments to switching to alternative businesses among Naswar SC actors in Pakistan. These findings are the first to come out in the context of both Pakistan and Naswar product, making a case for policy interventions focusing on tax increases, awareness campaigns about tobacco-harms, and a proactive role by the government to provide support for the security of livelihoods to those tobacco SC actors who want to switch to other alternatives.
Erscheinungsjahr
2021
Zeitschriftentitel
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Band
23
Ausgabe
9
Seite(n)
1498–1506
eISSN
1469-994X
Page URI
https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2953977

Zitieren

Ahmad F, Khan Z, Böckmann M, et al. Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2021;23(9):1498–1506.
Ahmad, F., Khan, Z., Böckmann, M., Khan, M. N., Siddiqi, K., Ullah, S., Zeeb, H., et al. (2021). Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 23(9), 1498–1506. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab045
Ahmad, F., Khan, Z., Böckmann, M., Khan, M. N., Siddiqi, K., Ullah, S., Zeeb, H., and Forberger, S. (2021). Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 23, 1498–1506.
Ahmad, F., et al., 2021. Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 23(9), p 1498–1506.
F. Ahmad, et al., “Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan”, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 23, 2021, pp. 1498–1506.
Ahmad, F., Khan, Z., Böckmann, M., Khan, M.N., Siddiqi, K., Ullah, S., Zeeb, H., Forberger, S.: Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 23, 1498–1506 (2021).
Ahmad, Fayaz, Khan, Zohaib, Böckmann, Melanie, Khan, Muhammad Naseem, Siddiqi, Kamran, Ullah, Safat, Zeeb, Hajo, and Forberger, Sarah. “Supply Chain Actors’ Willingness to Switch the Business of Smokeless Tobacco: A Mixed-Methods Study on Naswar Business in Pakistan”. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 23.9 (2021): 1498–1506.

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