Visual and olfactory communication are vital for coordinated group hunting in most animals. To hunt for prey, the group raiding termite specialist ant Megaponera analis, which lacks good vision must first confirm the presence or absence of conspecific raiders. Here we show that, M. analis uses olfactory cues for intra-specific communication and showed greater preference for conspecific odours over clean air (blank) or odours from its termite prey. Chemical analysis of ant volatiles identified predominantly short-chained hydrocarbons. Electrophysiological analysis revealed differential sensory detection of the odour compounds, which were confirmed in behavioural olfactometric choice assays with odour bouquets collected from major and minor castes, and the two most dominant volatiles n-undecane and n-tridecane. A comparative analysis of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile with those of the short-chained odour bouquet of different populations shows a high divergence in the long chained profile and a much-conserved short-chained odour bouquet. This suggests that there is less selection pressure for divergence and individual recognition in the short- than the long-chained odour profiles. We conclude that olfactory communication serves as an alternative to visual or sound communication especially during group raids in M. analis when ants are not in direct contact with one another.