Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050

Chang AY, Cowling K, Micah AE, Chapin A, Chen CS, Ikilezi G, Sadat N, Tsakalos G, Wu J, Younker T, Zhao Y, et al. (2019)
LANCET 393(10187): 2233-2260.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Es wurden keine Dateien hochgeladen. Nur Publikationsnachweis!
Chang, Angela Y.; Cowling, Krycia; Micah, Angela E.; Chapin, Abigail; Chen, Catherine S.; Ikilezi, Gloria; Sadat, Nafis; Tsakalos, Golsum; Wu, Junjie; Younker, Theodore; Zhao, Yingxi; Zlavog, Bianca S.
Abstract / Bemerkung
Background Comprehensive and comparable estimates of health spending in each country are a key input for health policy and planning, and are necessary to support the achievement of national and international health goals. Previous studies have tracked past and projected future health spending until 2040 and shown that, with economic development, countries tend to spend more on health per capita, with a decreasing share of spending from development assistance and out-of-pocket sources. We aimed to characterise the past, present, and predicted future of global health spending, with an emphasis on equity in spending across countries. Methods We estimated domestic health spending for 195 countries and territories from 1995 to 2016, split into three categories-government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending-and estimated development assistance for health (DAH) from 1990 to 2018. We estimated future scenarios of health spending using an ensemble of linear mixed-effects models with time series specifications to project domestic health spending from 2017 through 2050 and DAH from 2019 through 2050. Data were extracted from a broad set of sources tracking health spending and revenue, and were standardised and converted to inflation-adjusted 2018 US dollars. Incomplete or low-quality data were modelled and uncertainty was estimated, leading to a complete data series of total, government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending, and DAH. Estimates are reported in 2018 US dollars, 2018 purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars, and as a percentage of gross domestic product. We used demographic decomposition methods to assess a set of factors associated with changes in government health spending between 1995 and 2016 and to examine evidence to support the theory of the health financing transition. We projected two alternative future scenarios based on higher government health spending to assess the potential ability of governments to generate more resources for health. Findings Between 1995 and 2016, health spending grew at a rate of 4.00% (95% uncertainty interval 3.89-4.12) annually, although it grew slower in per capita terms (2.72% [2.61-2.84]) and increased by less than $ 1 per capita over this period in 22 of 195 countries. The highest annual growth rates in per capita health spending were observed in upper-middle-income countries (5.55% [5.18-5.95]), mainly due to growth in government health spending, and in lower-middle-income countries (3.71% [3.10-4.34]), mainly from DAH. Health spending globally reached $ 8.0 trillion (7.8-8.1) in 2016 (comprising 8.6% [8.4-8.7] of the global economy and $ 10.3 trillion [10.1-10.6] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), with a per capita spending of US$ 5252 (5184-5319) in high-income countries, $ 491 (461-524) in upper-middle-income countries, $ 81 (74-89) in lower-middle-income countries, and $ 40 (38-43) in low-income countries. In 2016, 0.4% (0.3-0.4) of health spending globally was in low-income countries, despite these countries comprising 10.0% of the global population. In 2018, the largest proportion of DAH targeted HIV/AIDS ($ 9.5 billion, 24.3% of total DAH), although spending on other infectious diseases (excluding tuberculosis and malaria) grew fastest from 2010 to 2018 (6.27% per year). The leading sources of DAH were the USA and private philanthropy (excluding corporate donations and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). For the first time, we included estimates of China's contribution to DAH ($ 644.7 million in 2018). Globally, health spending is projected to increase to $ 15.0 trillion (14.0-16.0) by 2050 (reaching 9.4% [7.6-11.3] of the global economy and $ 21.3 trillion [19.8-23.1] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), but at a lower growth rate of 1.84% (1.68-2.02) annually, and with continuing disparities in spending between countries. In 2050, we estimate that 0.6% (0.6-0.7) of health spending will occur in currently low-income countries, despite these countries comprising an estimated 15.7% of the global population by 2050. The ratio between per capita health spending in high-income and low-income countries was 130.2 (122.9-136.9) in 2016 and is projected to remain at similar levels in 2050 (125.9 [113.7-138.1]). The decomposition analysis identified governments' increased prioritisation of the health sector and economic development as the strongest factors associated with increases in government health spending globally. Future government health spending scenarios suggest that, with greater prioritisation of the health sector and increased government spending, health spending per capita could more than double, with greater impacts in countries that currently have the lowest levels of government health spending. Interpretation Financing for global health has increased steadily over the past two decades and is projected to continue increasing in the future, although at a slower pace of growth and with persistent disparities in per-capita health spending between countries. Out-of-pocket spending is projected to remain substantial outside of high-income countries. Many low-income countries are expected to remain dependent on development assistance, although with greater government spending, larger investments in health are feasible. In the absence of sustained new investments in health, increasing efficiency in health spending is essential to meet global health targets.
Page URI


Chang AY, Cowling K, Micah AE, et al. Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050. LANCET. 2019;393(10187):2233-2260.
Chang, A. Y., Cowling, K., Micah, A. E., Chapin, A., Chen, C. S., Ikilezi, G., Sadat, N., et al. (2019). Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050. LANCET, 393(10187), 2233-2260. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30841-4
Chang, A. Y., Cowling, K., Micah, A. E., Chapin, A., Chen, C. S., Ikilezi, G., Sadat, N., Tsakalos, G., Wu, J., Younker, T., et al. (2019). Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050. LANCET 393, 2233-2260.
Chang, A.Y., et al., 2019. Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050. LANCET, 393(10187), p 2233-2260.
A.Y. Chang, et al., “Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050”, LANCET, vol. 393, 2019, pp. 2233-2260.
Chang, A.Y., Cowling, K., Micah, A.E., Chapin, A., Chen, C.S., Ikilezi, G., Sadat, N., Tsakalos, G., Wu, J., Younker, T., Zhao, Y., Zlavog, B.S., Abbafati, C., Ahmed, A.E., Alam, K., Alipour, V., Aljunid, S.M., Almalki, M.J., Alvis-Guzman, N., Ammar, W., Andrei, C.L., Anjomshoa, M., Antonio, C.A.T., Arabloo, J., Aremu, O., Ausloos, M., Avila-Burgos, L., Awasthi, A., Ayanore, M.A., Azari, S., Azzopardi-Muscat, N., Bagherzadeh, M., Baernighausen, T.W., Baune, B.T., Bayati, M., Belay, Y.B., Belay, Y.A., Belete, H., Berbada, D.A., Berman, A.E., Beuran, M., Bijani, A., Busse, R., Cahuana-Hurtado, L., Alberto Camera, L., Catala-Lopez, F., Chauhan, B.G., Constantin, M.-M., Crowe, C.S., Cucu, A., Dalal, K., De Neve, J.-W., Deipatine, S., Demeke, F.M., Huyen Phuc Do, H.P.D., Dubey, M., El Tantawi, M., Eskandarieh, S., Esmaeili, R., Fakhar, M., Fazaeli, A.A., Fischer, F., Foigt, N.A., Fukumoto, T., Fullman, N., Galan, A., Gamkrelidze, A., Gezae, K.E., Ghajar, A., Ghashghaee, A., Goginashvili, K., Haakenstad, A., Bidgoli, H.H., Hamidi, S., Harb, H.L., Hasanpoor, E., Hassen, H.Y., Hay, Simon, I., Hendrie, D., Henok, A., Heredia-Pi, I., Herteliu, C., Hoang, C.L., Hole, M.K., Rad, E.H., Hossain, N., Hosseinzadeh, M., Hostiuc, S., Ilesanmi, O.S., Irvani, S.S.N., Jakovljevic, M., Jalali, A., James, S.L., Jonas, J.B., Jurisson, M., Kadel, R., Matin, B.K., Kasaeian, A., Kasaye, H.K., Kassaw, M.W., Karyani, A.K., Khabiri, R., Khan, J., Khan, M.N., Khang, Y.-H., Kisa, A., Kissimova-Skarbek, K., Kohler, S., Koyanagi, A., Krohn, K.J., Leung, R., Lim, L.-L., Lorkowski, S., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Mansourian, M., Mantovani, L.G., Massenburg, B.B., Mckee, M., Mehta, V., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T.J., Kostova, N.M., Miller, T.R., Mirrakhimov, E.M., Mohajer, B., Darwesh, A.M., Mohammed, S., Mohebi, F., Mokdad, A.H., Morrison, S.D., Mousavi, S.M., Muthupandian, S., Nagarajan, A.J., Nangia, V., Cuong Tat Nguyen, C.T.N., Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, H.L.T.N., Son Hoang Nguyen, S.H.N., Nosratnejad, S., Oladimeji, O., Olgiati, S., Olusanya, J.O., Onwujekwe, O.E., Otstavnov, S.S., Pana, A., Pereira, D.M., Piroozi, B., Prada, Sergio, I., Qorbani, M., Rabiee, M., Rabiee, N., Rafiei, A., Rahim, F., Rahimi-Mcwaghar, V., Ram, U., Ranabhat, C.L., Ranta, A., Rawaf, D.L., Rawaf, S., Rezaei, S., Roro, E.M., Rostami, A., Rubino, S., Salahshoor, M., Samy, A.M., Sanabria, J., Santos, J.V., Milicevic, M.M.S., Sao Jose, B.P., Savic, M., Schwendicke, F., Sepanlou, S.G., Sepehrimanesh, M., Sheikh, A., Shrime, M.G., Sisay, S., Soltani, S., Soofi, M., Srinivasan, V., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Torre, A., Tovani-Palone, M.R., Bach Xuan Tran, B.X.T., Khanh Bao Tran, K.B.T., Undurraga, E.A., Valdez, P.R., Van Boven, J.F.M., Vargas, V., Veisani, Y., Violante, F.S., Vladimirov, S.K., Vlassov, V., Vollmer, S., Giang Thu Vu, G.T.V., Wolfe, C.D.A., Yonemoto, N., Younis, M.Z., Yousefifard, M., Bin Zaman, S., Zangeneh, A., Zegeye, E.A., Ziapour, A., Chew, A., Murray, C.J.L., Dieleman, J.L.: Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050. LANCET. 393, 2233-2260 (2019).
Chang, Angela Y., Cowling, Krycia, Micah, Angela E., Chapin, Abigail, Chen, Catherine S., Ikilezi, Gloria, Sadat, Nafis, Tsakalos, Golsum, Wu, Junjie, Younker, Theodore, Zhao, Yingxi, Zlavog, Bianca S., Abbafati, Cristiana, Ahmed, Anwar E., Alam, Khurshid, Alipour, Vahid, Aljunid, Syed Mohamed, Almalki, Mohammed J., Alvis-Guzman, Nelson, Ammar, Walid, Andrei, Catalina Liliana, Anjomshoa, Mina, Antonio, Carl Abelardo T., Arabloo, Jalal, Aremu, Olatunde, Ausloos, Marcel, Avila-Burgos, Leticia, Awasthi, Ashish, Ayanore, Martin Amogre, Azari, Samad, Azzopardi-Muscat, Natasha, Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba, Baernighausen, Till Winfried, Baune, Bernhard T., Bayati, Mohsen, Belay, Yared Belete, Belay, Yihalem Abebe, Belete, Habte, Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema, Berman, Adam E., Beuran, Mircea, Bijani, Ali, Busse, Reinhard, Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero, Alberto Camera, Luis, Catala-Lopez, Ferran, Chauhan, Bal Govind, Constantin, Maria-Magdalena, Crowe, Christopher Stephen, Cucu, Alexandra, Dalal, Koustuv, De Neve, Jan-Walter, Deipatine, Selina, Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen, Huyen Phuc Do, Huyen Phuc Do, Dubey, Manisha, El Tantawi, Maha, Eskandarieh, Sharareh, Esmaeili, Reza, Fakhar, Mandi, Fazaeli, Ali Akbar, Fischer, Florian, Foigt, Nataliya A., Fukumoto, Takeshi, Fullman, Nancy, Galan, Adriana, Gamkrelidze, Amiran, Gezae, Kebede Embaye, Ghajar, Alireza, Ghashghaee, Ahmad, Goginashvili, Ketevan, Haakenstad, Annie, Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast, Hamidi, Samer, Harb, Hilda L., Hasanpoor, Edris, Hassen, Hamid Yimam, Hay, Simon, I, Hendrie, Delia, Henok, Andualem, Heredia-Pi, Ileana, Herteliu, Claudiu, Hoang, Chi Linh, Hole, Michael K., Rad, Enayatollah Homaie, Hossain, Naznin, Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi, Hostiuc, Sorin, Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo, Jalali, Amir, James, Spencer L., Jonas, Jost B., Jurisson, Mikk, Kadel, Rajendra, Matin, Behzad Karami, Kasaeian, Amir, Kasaye, Habtanut Kebebe, Kassaw, Mesfin Wudu, Karyani, Ali Kazemi, Khabiri, Roghayeh, Khan, Junaid, Khan, Md Nuruzzaman, Khang, Young-Ho, Kisa, Adnan, Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna, Kohler, Stefan, Koyanagi, Ai, Krohn, Kristopher J., Leung, Ricky, Lim, Lee-Ling, Lorkowski, Stefan, Majeed, Azeem, Malekzadeh, Reza, Mansourian, Morten, Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni, Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard, Mckee, Martin, Mehta, Varshil, Meretoja, Atte, Meretoja, Tuomo J., Kostova, Neda Milevska, Miller, Ted R., Mirrakhimov, Erkin M., Mohajer, Bahram, Darwesh, Aso Mohammad, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mohebi, Farnam, Mokdad, Ali H., Morrison, Shane Douglas, Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam, Muthupandian, Saravanan, Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman, Nangia, Vinay, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen, Nosratnejad, Shirin, Oladimeji, Olanrewajti, Olgiati, Stefano, Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun, Onwujekwe, Obinna E., Otstavnov, Stanislav S., Pana, Adrian, Pereira, David M., Piroozi, Bakhtiar, Prada, Sergio, I, Qorbani, Mostafa, Rabiee, Mohammad, Rabiee, Navid, Rafiei, Alireza, Rahim, Fakher, Rahimi-Mcwaghar, Vafa, Ram, Usha, Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal, Ranta, Anna, Rawaf, David Laith, Rawaf, Salman, Rezaei, Satar, Roro, Elias Merdassa, Rostami, Ali, Rubino, Salvatore, Salahshoor, Mohamadreza, Samy, Abdallah M., Sanabria, Juan, Santos, Joao Vasco, Milicevic, Milena M. Sanrric, Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi, Savic, Miloje, Schwendicke, Falk, Sepanlou, Sadaf G., Sepehrimanesh, Masood, Sheikh, Aziz, Shrime, Mark G., Sisay, Solomon, Soltani, Shahin, Soofi, Moslem, Srinivasan, Vinay, Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael, Torre, Anna, Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto, Bach Xuan Tran, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Undurraga, Eduardo A., Valdez, Pascual R., Van Boven, Job F. M., Vargas, Veronica, Veisani, Yousef, Violante, Francesco S., Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch, Vlassov, Vasily, Vollmer, Sebastian, Giang Thu Vu, Giang Thu Vu, Wolfe, Charles D. A., Yonemoto, Naohiro, Younis, Mustafa Z., Yousefifard, Mahmoud, Bin Zaman, Sojib, Zangeneh, Alireza, Zegeye, Elias Asfaw, Ziapour, Arash, Chew, Adrienne, Murray, Christopher J. L., and Dieleman, Joseph L. “Past, present, and future of global health financing: a review of development assistance, government, out-of-pocket, and other private spending on health for 195 countries, 1995-2050”. LANCET 393.10187 (2019): 2233-2260.

2 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Potential for additional government spending on HIV/AIDS in 137 low-income and middle-income countries: an economic modelling study.
Haakenstad A, Moses MW, Tao T, Tsakalos G, Zlavog B, Kates J, Wexler A, Murray CJL, Dieleman JL., Lancet HIV 6(6), 2019
PMID: 31036482
Tracking spending on malaria by source in 106 countries, 2000-16: an economic modelling study.
Haakenstad A, Harle AC, Tsakalos G, Micah AE, Tao T, Anjomshoa M, Cohen J, Fullman N, Hay SI, Mestrovic T, Mohammed S, Mousavi SM, Nixon MR, Pigott D, Tran K, Murray CJL, Dieleman JL., Lancet Infect Dis 19(7), 2019
PMID: 31036511

39 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.


Gottret P, Schieber G., 2006
Household catastrophic health expenditure: a multicountry analysis.
Xu K, Evans DB, Kawabata K, Zeramdini R, Klavus J, Murray CJ., Lancet 362(9378), 2003
PMID: 12867110
Government health expenditures and health outcomes.
Bokhari FA, Gai Y, Gottret P., Health Econ 16(3), 2007
PMID: 17001737
Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.
Moreno-Serra R, Smith PC., J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 178(1), 2014
PMID: 25598588
Changes in government spending on healthcare and population mortality in the European union, 1995-2010: a cross-sectional ecological study.
Budhdeo S, Watkins J, Atun R, Williams C, Zeltner T, Maruthappu M., J R Soc Med 108(12), 2015
PMID: 26510733
Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016-40.
Global Burden of Disease Health Financing Collaborator Network, Dieleman JL, Sadat N, Chang AY, Fullman N, Abbafati C, Acharya P, Adou AK, Ahmad Kiadaliri A, Alam K, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Alkerwi A, Ammar W, Antonio CAT, Aremu O, Asgedom SW, Atey TM, Avila-Burgos L, Ayer R, Badali H, Banach M, Banstola A, Barac A, Belachew AB, Birungi C, Bragazzi NL, Breitborde NJK, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Car J, Catala-Lopez F, Chapin A, Chen CS, Dandona L, Dandona R, Daryani A, Dharmaratne SD, Dubey M, Edessa D, Eldrenkamp E, Eshrati B, Faro A, Feigl AB, Fenny AP, Fischer F, Foigt N, Foreman KJ, Ghimire M, Goli S, Hailu AD, Hamidi S, Harb HL, Hay SI, Hendrie D, Ikilezi G, Javanbakht M, John D, Jonas JB, Kaldjian A, Kasaeian A, Kasahun YC, Khalil IA, Khang YH, Khubchandani J, Kim YJ, Kinge JM, Kosen S, Krohn KJ, Kumar GA, Lafranconi A, Lam H, Listl S, Magdy Abd El Razek H, Magdy Abd El Razek M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malta DC, Martinez G, Mensah GA, Meretoja A, Micah A, Miller TR, Mirrakhimov EM, Mlashu FW, Mohammed E, Mohammed S, Moses M, Mousavi SM, Naghavi M, Nangia V, Ngalesoni FN, Nguyen CT, Nguyen TH, Niriayo Y, Noroozi M, Owolabi MO, Patel T, Pereira DM, Polinder S, Qorbani M, Rafay A, Rafiei A, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rai RK, Ram U, Ranabhat CL, Ray SE, Reiner RC, Sajadi HS, Santoro R, Santos JV, Sarker AR, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Sepanlou SG, Shaikh MA, Sharif M, She J, Sheikh A, Shrime MG, Sisay M, Soneji S, Soofi M, Sorensen RJD, Tadesse H, Tao T, Templin T, Tesema AG, Thapa S, Tobe-Gai R, Topor-Madry R, Tran BX, Tran KB, Tran TT, Undurraga EA, Vasankari T, Violante FS, Werdecker A, Wijeratne T, Xu G, Yonemoto N, Younis MZ, Yu C, Zaki MES, Zlavog B, Murray CJL., Lancet 391(10132), 2018
PMID: 29678341

Cashin C., 2016
Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what can analysis of national health financing contribute to understanding MDG 4 and 5 progress?
Mann C, Ng C, Akseer N, Bhutta ZA, Borghi J, Colbourn T, Hernandez-Pena P, Huicho L, Malik MA, Martinez-Alvarez M, Munthali S, Salehi AS, Tadesse M, Yassin M, Berman P; Countdown to 2015 Health Finance Working Group, Berman P, Borghi J, Rannan-Eliya R, Brearley L, Friedman H, Ravishankar N, Cortes R, Mtei G., BMC Public Health 16 Suppl 2(), 2016
PMID: 27634209
Global health expenditure database. Last updated March 22, 2019

The next generation of the Penn World Table
Feenstra RC, Inklaar R, Marcel P., 2015
World Bank country and lending groups—World Bank data help desk
World economic outlook, October 2018: challenges to steady growth
Maddison Project Database, version 2018. Rebasing ‘Maddison’: new income comparisons and the shape of long-run economic development. Maddison Project Working paper 10
Jutta B, Inklaar R, de H, van JL., 0
National Accounts Main Aggregates Database. —National Health Accounts
Developing a comprehensive time series of GDP per capita for 210 countries from 1950 to 2015
James SL, Gubbins P, Murray CJ, Gakidou E., 2012
Financing of global health: tracking development assistance for health from 1990 to 2007.
Ravishankar N, Gubbins P, Cooley RJ, Leach-Kemon K, Michaud CM, Jamison DT, Murray CJ., Lancet 373(9681), 2009
PMID: 19541038
The global financial crisis has led to a slowdown in growth of funding to improve health in many developing countries
Leach-Kemon K, Chou DP, Schneider MT., 2012
Sources and Focus of Health Development Assistance, 1990-2014.
Dieleman JL, Graves C, Johnson E, Templin T, Birger M, Hamavid H, Freeman M, Leach-Kemon K, Singh L, Haakenstad A, Murray CJ., JAMA 313(23), 2015
PMID: 26080340
Global health development assistance remained steady in 2013 but did not align with recipients' disease burden
Dieleman JL, Graves CM, Templin T., 2014
National spending on health by source for 184 countries between 2013 and 2040.
Dieleman JL, Templin T, Sadat N, Reidy P, Chapin A, Foreman K, Haakenstad A, Evans T, Murray CJ, Kurowski C., Lancet 387(10037), 2016
PMID: 27086174

Das P., 1993
Modeling causes of death: an integrated approach using CODEm.
Foreman KJ, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJ., Popul Health Metr 10(), 2012
PMID: 22226226
World Population Prospects: the 2017 revision
World Bank Country and Lending Groups— World Bank Data Help Desk
Health systems financing and the path to universal coverage.
Evans DB, Etienne C., Bull. World Health Organ. 88(6), 2010
PMID: 20539847
Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries.
Leive A, Xu K., Bull. World Health Organ. 86(11), 2008
PMID: 19030690
Public spending on health: a closer look at global trends
Xu K, Soucat A, Kutzin J., 2018
The missing middle—or is there an obvious resource gap for LMICs?
Dercon S, Lea N., 0
China's response to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa
Huang Y., 2017
New orientation for China's health assistance to Africa.
Alcorn T., Lancet 386(10011), 2015
PMID: 26700520


Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®


PMID: 31030984
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar