Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

James SL, Theadom A, Ellenbogen RG, Bannick MS, Mountjoy-Venning WC, Lucchesi LR, Abbasi N, Abdulkader R, Abraha HN, Adsuar JC, Afarideh M, et al. (2019)
LANCET NEUROLOGY 18(1): 56-87.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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James, Spencer L.; Theadom, Alice; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Bannick, Marlena S.; Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abdulkader, Rizwan; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Sutapa
Abstract / Bemerkung
Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasingly recognised as global health priorities in view of the preventability of most injuries and the complex and expensive medical care they necessitate. We aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for TBI and SCI from all causes of injury in every country, to describe how these measures have changed between 1990 and 2016, and to estimate the proportion of TBI and SCI cases caused by different types of injury. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016 to measure the global, regional, and national burden of TBI and SCI by age and sex. We measured the incidence and prevalence of all causes of injury requiring medical care in inpatient and outpatient records, literature studies, and survey data. By use of clinical record data, we estimated the proportion of each cause of injury that required medical care that would result in TBI or SCI being considered as the nature of injury. We used literature studies to establish standardised mortality ratios and applied differential equations to convert incidence to prevalence of long-term disability. Finally, we applied GBD disability weights to calculate YLDs. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool for epidemiological modelling, used cause-specific mortality rates for non-fatal estimation, and adjusted our results for disability experienced with comorbid conditions. We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility. Findings In 2016, there were 27.08 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24.30-30.30 million) new cases of TBI and 0.93 million (0.78-1.16 million) new cases of SCI, with age-standardised incidence rates of 369 (331-412) per 100 000 population for TBI and 13 (11-16) per 100 000 for SCI. In 2016, the number of prevalent cases of TBI was 55.50 million (53.40-57.62 million) and of SCI was 27.04 million (24 .98-30 .15 million). From 1990 to 2016, the age-standardised prevalence of TBI increased by 8.4% (95% UI 7.7 to 9.2), whereas that of SCI did not change significantly (-0.2% [-2.1 to 2.7]). Age-standardised incidence rates increased by 3.6% (1.8 to 5.5) for TBI, but did not change significantly for SCI (-3.6% [-7.4 to 4.0]). TBI caused 8.1 million (95% UI 6. 0-10. 4 million) YLDs and SCI caused 9.5 million (6.7-12.4 million) YLDs in 2016, corresponding to age-standardised rates of 111 (82-141) per 100 000 for TBI and 130 (90-170) per 100 000 for SCI. Falls and road injuries were the leading causes of new cases of TBI and SCI in most regions. Interpretation TBI and SCI constitute a considerable portion of the global injury burden and are caused primarily by falls and road injuries. The increase in incidence of TBI over time might continue in view of increases in population density, population ageing, and increasing use of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles. The number of individuals living with SCI is expected to increase in view of population growth, which is concerning because of the specialised care that people with SCI can require. Our study was limited by data sparsity in some regions, and it will be important to invest greater resources in collection of data for TBI and SCI to improve the accuracy of future assessments. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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James SL, Theadom A, Ellenbogen RG, et al. Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET NEUROLOGY. 2019;18(1):56-87.
James, S. L., Theadom, A., Ellenbogen, R. G., Bannick, M. S., Mountjoy-Venning, W. C., Lucchesi, L. R., Abbasi, N., et al. (2019). Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET NEUROLOGY, 18(1), 56-87. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30415-0
James, Spencer L., Theadom, Alice, Ellenbogen, Richard G., Bannick, Marlena S., Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff, Lucchesi, Lydia R., Abbasi, Nooshin, et al. 2019. “Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016”. LANCET NEUROLOGY 18 (1): 56-87.
James, S. L., Theadom, A., Ellenbogen, R. G., Bannick, M. S., Mountjoy-Venning, W. C., Lucchesi, L. R., Abbasi, N., Abdulkader, R., Abraha, H. N., Adsuar, J. C., et al. (2019). Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET NEUROLOGY 18, 56-87.
James, S.L., et al., 2019. Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET NEUROLOGY, 18(1), p 56-87.
S.L. James, et al., “Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016”, LANCET NEUROLOGY, vol. 18, 2019, pp. 56-87.
James, S.L., Theadom, A., Ellenbogen, R.G., Bannick, M.S., Mountjoy-Venning, W.C., Lucchesi, L.R., Abbasi, N., Abdulkader, R., Abraha, H.N., Adsuar, J.C., Afarideh, M., Agrawal, S., Ahmadi, A., Ahmed, M.B., Aichour, A.N., Aichour, I., Aichour, M.T.E., Akinyemi, R.O., Akseer, N., Alahdab, F., Alebel, A., Alghnam, S.A., Ali, B.A., Alsharif, U., Altirkawi, K., Andrei, C.L., Anjomshoa, M., Ansari, H., Ansha, M.G., Antonio, C.A.T., Appiah, S.C.Y., Ariani, F., Asefa, N.G., Asgedom, S.W., Atique, S., Awasthi, A., Quintanilla, B.P.A., Ayuk, T.B., Azzopardi, P.S., Badali, H., Badawi, A., Balalla, S., Banstola, A., Barker-Collo, S.L., Barnighausen, T.W., Bedi, N., Behzadifar, M., Behzadifar, M., Bekele, B.B., Belachew, A.B., Belay, Y.A., Bennett, D.A., Bensenor, I.M., Berhane, A., Beuran, M., Bhalla, A., Bhaumik, S., Bhutta, Z.A., Biadgo, B., Biffino, M., Bijani, A., Bililign, N., Birungi, C., Boufous, S., Brazinova, A., Brown, A.W., Car, M., Cardenas, R., Carrero, J.J., Carvalho, F., Castaneda-Orjuela, C.A., Catala-Lopez, F., Chaiah, Y., Champs, A.P., Chang, J.-C., Choi, J.-Y.J., Christopher, D.J., Cooper, C., Crowe, C.S., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Daryani, A., Davitoiu, D.V., Degefa, M.G., Demoz, G.T., Deribe, K., Djalalinia, S., Huyen Phuc Do, H.P.D., Doku, D.T., Drake, T.M., Dubey, M., Dubljanin, E., El-Khatib, Z., Eskandarieh, S., Esteghamati, A., Esteghamati, S., Faro, A., Farzadfar, F., Farzaei, M.H., Fereshtehnejad, S.-M., Fernandes, E., Feyissa, G.T., Filip, I., Fischer, F., Fukumoto, T., Ganji, M., Gankpe, F.G., Gebre, A.K., Gebrehiwot, T.T., Gezae, K.E., Gopalkrishna, G., Goulart, A.C., Haagsma, J.A., Haj-Mirzaian, A., Haj-Mirzaian, A., Hamadeh, R.R., Hamidi, S., Haro, J.M., Hassankhani, H., Hassen, H.Y., Havmoeller, R., Hawley, C., Hay, S.I., Hegazy, M.I., Hendrie, D., Henok, A., Hibstu, D.T., Hoffman, H.J., Hole, M.K., Rad, E.H., Hosseini, S.M., Hostiuc, S., Hu, G., Hussen, M.A., Ilesanmi, O.S., Irvani, S.N., Jakovljevic, M., Jayaraman, S., Jha, R.P., Jonas, J.B., Jones, K.M., Shushtari, Z.J., Jozwiak, J.J., Jurisson, M., Kabir, A., Kahsay, A., Kahssay, M., Kalani, R., Karch, A., Kasaeian, A., Kassa, G.M., Kassa, T.D., Kassa, Z.Y., Kengne, A.P., Khader, Y.S., Khafaie, M.A., Khalid, N., Khalil, I., Khan, E.A., Khan, M.S., Khang, Y.-H., Khazaie, H., Khoja, A.T., Khubchandani, J., Kiadaliri, A.A., Kim, D., Kim, Y.-E., Kisa, A., Koyanagi, A., Krohn, K.J., Defo, B.K., Bicer, B.K., Kumar, G.A., Kumar, M., Lalloo, R., Lami, F.H., Lansingh, V.C., Laryea, D.O., Latifi, A., Leshargie, C.T., Levi, M., Li, S., Liben, M.L., Lotufo, P.A., Lunevicius, R., Mahotra, N.B., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Manda, A.-L., Mansournia, M.A., Massenburg, B.B., Mate, K.K.V., Mehndiratta, M.M., Mehta, V., Meles, H., Melese, A., Memiah, P.T.N., Mendoza, W., Mengistu, G., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T.J., Mestrovic, T., Miazgowski, T., Miller, T.R., Mini, G.K., Mirica, A., Mirrakhimov, E.M., Moazen, B., Mohammadi, M., Mokdad, A.H., Molokhia, M., Monasta, L., Mondello, S., Moosazadeh, M., Moradi, G., Moradi, M., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moradinazar, M., Morrison, S.D., Moschos, M.M., Mousavi, S.M., Murthy, S., Musa, K.I., Mustafa, G., Naghavi, M., Naik, G., Najafi, F., Nangia, V., Nascimento, B.R., Negoi, I., Trang Huyen Nguyen, T.H.N., Nichols, E., Ningrum, D.N.A., Nirayo, Y.L., Nyasulu, P.S., Ofori-Asenso, R., Ogbo, F.A., Oh, I.-H., Okoro, A., Olagunju, A.T., Olagunju, T.O., Olivares, P.R., Otstavnov, S.S., Owolabi, M.O., Mahesh, P.A., Pakhale, S., Pandey, A.R., Pesudovs, K., Pinilla-Monsalve, G.D., Polinder, S., Poustchi, H., Prakash, S., Qorbani, M., Radfar, A., Rafay, A., Rafiei, A., Rahimi-Movaghar, A., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M.A., Rai, R.K., Rajati, F., Ram, U., Rawaf, D.L., Rawaf, S., Reiner, R.C., Reis, C., Renzaho, A.M.N., Resnikoff, S., Rezaei, S., Rezaeian, S., Roever, L., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Roy, N., Ruhago, G.M., Saddik, B., Safari, H., Safiri, S., Sahraian, M.A., Salamati, P., Saldanha, R. de F., Samy, A.M., Sanabria, J., Santos, J.V., Milicevic, M.M.M.S., Sartorius, B., Satpathy, M., Schneider, I.J.C., Schwebel, D.C., Sepanlou, S.G., Shabaninejad, H., Shaikh, M.A.A., Shams-Beyranvand, M., Sharif, M., Sharif-Alhoseini, M., Islam, S.M.S., She, J., Sheikh, A., Shen, J., Sheth, K.N., Shibuya, K., Shiferaw, M.S., Shigematsu, M., Shiri, R., Shiue, I., Shoman, H., Siabani, S., Siddiqi, T.J., Silva, J.P., Silveira, D.G.A., Sinha, D.N., Smith, M., Soares Filho, A.M., Sobhani, S., Soofi, M., Soriano, J.B., Soyiri, I.N., Stein, D.J., Stokes, M.A., Sufiyan, M.'awiyyah B., Sunguya, B.F., Sunshine, J.E., Sykes, B.L., Szoeke, C.E.I., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Ao, B.J.T., Tehrani-Banihashemi, A., Tekle, M.G., Temsah, M.-H., Temsah, O., Topor-Madry, R., Tortajada-Girbes, M., Bach Xuan Tran, B.X.T., Khanh Bao Tran, K.B.T., Car, L.T., Ukwaja, K.N., Ullah, I., Usman, M.S., Uthman, O.A., Valdez, P.R., Vasankari, T.J., Venketasubramanian, N., Violante, F.S., Wagnew, F.S., Waheed, Y., Wang, Y.-P., Weldegwergs, K.G., Werdecker, A., Wijeratne, T., Winkler, A.S., Wyper, G.M.A., Yano, Y., Yaseri, M., Yasin, Y.J., Ye, P., Yimer, E.M., Yip, P., Yisma, E., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S.-J., Yost, M.G., Younis, M.Z., Yousefifard, M., Yu, C., Zaidi, Z., Bin Zaman, S., Zamani, M., Zenebe, Z.M., Zodpey, S., Feigin, V.L., Vos, T., Murray, C.J.L.: Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. LANCET NEUROLOGY. 18, 56-87 (2019).
James, Spencer L., Theadom, Alice, Ellenbogen, Richard G., Bannick, Marlena S., Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff, Lucchesi, Lydia R., Abbasi, Nooshin, Abdulkader, Rizwan, Abraha, Haftom Niguse, Adsuar, Jose C., Afarideh, Mohsen, Agrawal, Sutapa, Ahmadi, Alireza, Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Aichour, Amani Nidhal, Aichour, Ibtihel, Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine, Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola, Akseer, Nadia, Alahdab, Fares, Alebel, Animut, Alghnam, Suliman A., Ali, Beriwan Abdulqadir, Alsharif, Ubai, Altirkawi, Khalid, Andrei, Catalina Liliana, Anjomshoa, Mina, Ansari, Hossein, Ansha, Mustafa Geleto, Antonio, Carl Abelardo T., Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw, Ariani, Filippo, Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin, Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal, Atique, Suleman, Awasthi, Ashish, Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala, Ayuk, Tambe B., Azzopardi, Peter S., Badali, Hamid, Badawi, Alaa, Balalla, Shivanthi, Banstola, Amrit, Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn, Barnighausen, Till Winfried, Bedi, Neeraj, Behzadifar, Masoud, Behzadifar, Meysam, Bekele, Bayu Begashaw, Belachew, Abate Bekele, Belay, Yihalem Abebe, Bennett, Derrick A., Bensenor, Isabela M., Berhane, Adugnaw, Beuran, Mircea, Bhalla, Ashish, Bhaumik, Soumyadeeep, Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., Biadgo, Belete, Biffino, Marco, Bijani, Ali, Bililign, Nigus, Birungi, Charles, Boufous, Soufiane, Brazinova, Alexandra, Brown, Allen W., Car, Mate, Cardenas, Rosario, Carrero, Juan J., Carvalho, Felix, Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A., Catala-Lopez, Ferran, Chaiah, Yazan, Champs, Ana Paula, Chang, Jung-Chen, Choi, Jee-Young J., Christopher, Devasahayam J., Cooper, Cyrus, Crowe, Christopher Stephen, Dandona, Lalit, Dandona, Rakhi, Daryani, Ahmad, Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil, Degefa, Meaza Girma, Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam, Deribe, Kebede, Djalalinia, Shirin, Huyen Phuc Do, Huyen Phuc Do, Doku, David Teye, Drake, Thomas M., Dubey, Manisha, Dubljanin, Eleonora, El-Khatib, Ziad, Eskandarieh, Sharareh, Esteghamati, Alireza, Esteghamati, Sadaf, Faro, Andre, Farzadfar, Farshad, Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein, Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad, Fernandes, Eduarda, Feyissa, Garumma Tolu, Filip, Irina, Fischer, Florian, Fukumoto, Takeshi, Ganji, Morasaleh, Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho, Gebre, Abadi Kahsu, Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde, Gezae, Kebede Embaye, Gopalkrishna, Gururaj, Goulart, Alessandra C., Haagsma, Juanita A., Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin, Haj-Mirzaian, Arya, Hamadeh, Randah R., Hamidi, Samer, Haro, Josep Maria, Hassankhani, Hadi, Hassen, Hamid Yimam, Havmoeller, Rasmus, Hawley, Caitlin, Hay, Simon I., Hegazy, Mohamed I., Hendrie, Delia, Henok, Andualem, Hibstu, Desalegn Tsegaw, Hoffman, Howard J., Hole, Michael K., Rad, Enayatollah Homaie, Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa, Hostiuc, Sorin, Hu, Guoqing, Hussen, Mamusha Aman, Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen, Irvani, Seyed Naghibi, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo, Jayaraman, Sudha, Jha, Ravi Prakash, Jonas, Jost B., Jones, Kelly M., Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran, Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy, Jurisson, Mikk, Kabir, Ali, Kahsay, Amaha, Kahssay, Molla, Kalani, Rizwan, Karch, Andre, Kasaeian, Amir, Kassa, Getachew Mullu, Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale, Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes, Kengne, Andre Pascal, Khader, Yousef Saleh, Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif, Khalid, Nauman, Khalil, Ibrahim, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb, Khang, Young-Ho, Khazaie, Habibolah, Khoja, Abdullah T., Khubchandani, Jagdish, Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A., Kim, Daniel, Kim, Young-Eun, Kisa, Adnan, Koyanagi, Ai, Krohn, Kristopher J., Defo, Barthelemy Kuate, Bicer, Burcu Kucuk, Kumar, G. Anil, Kumar, Manasi, Lalloo, Ratilal, Lami, Faris Hasan, Lansingh, Van C., Laryea, Dennis Odai, Latifi, Arman, Leshargie, Cheru Tesema, Levi, Miriam, Li, Shanshan, Liben, Misgan Legesse, Lotufo, Paulo A., Lunevicius, Raimundas, Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur, Majdan, Marek, Majeed, Azeem, Malekzadeh, Reza, Manda, Ana-Laura, Mansournia, Mohammad Ali, Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard, Mate, Kedar K. V., Mehndiratta, Man Mohan, Mehta, Varshil, Meles, Hagazi, Melese, Addisu, Memiah, Peter T. N., Mendoza, Walter, Mengistu, Getnet, Meretoja, Atte, Meretoja, Tuomo J., Mestrovic, Tomislav, Miazgowski, Tomasz, Miller, Ted R., Mini, G. K., Mirica, Andreea, Mirrakhimov, Erkin M., Moazen, Babak, Mohammadi, Moslem, Mokdad, Ali H., Molokhia, Mariam, Monasta, Lorenzo, Mondello, Stefania, Moosazadeh, Mahmood, Moradi, Ghobad, Moradi, Mahmoudreza, Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar, Moradinazar, Mehdi, Morrison, Shane Douglas, Moschos, Marilita M., Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam, Murthy, Srinivas, Musa, Kamarul Imran, Mustafa, Ghulam, Naghavi, Mohsen, Naik, Gurudatta, Najafi, Farid, Nangia, Vinay, Nascimento, Bruno Ramos, Negoi, Ionut, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Trang Huyen Nguyen, Nichols, Emma, Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini, Nirayo, Yirga Legesse, Nyasulu, Peter S., Ofori-Asenso, Richard, Ogbo, Felix Akpojene, Oh, In-Hwan, Okoro, Anselm, Olagunju, Andrew T., Olagunju, Tinuke O., Olivares, Pedro R., Otstavnov, Stanislav S., Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo, Mahesh, P. A., Pakhale, Smita, Pandey, Achyut Raj, Pesudovs, Konrad, Pinilla-Monsalve, Gabriel D., Polinder, Suzanne, Poustchi, Hossein, Prakash, Swayam, Qorbani, Mostafa, Radfar, Amir, Rafay, Anwar, Rafiei, Alireza, Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin, Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa, Rahman, Mahfuzar, Rahman, Muhammad Aziz, Rai, Rajesh Kumar, Rajati, Fatemeh, Ram, Usha, Rawaf, David Laith, Rawaf, Salman, Reiner, Robert C., Reis, Cesar, Renzaho, Andre M. N., Resnikoff, Serge, Rezaei, Satar, Rezaeian, Shahab, Roever, Leonardo, Ronfani, Luca, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Roy, Nobhojit, Ruhago, George Mugambage, Saddik, Basema, Safari, Hosein, Safiri, Saeid, Sahraian, Mohammad Ali, Salamati, Payman, Saldanha, Raphael de Freitas, Samy, Abdallah M., Sanabria, Juan, Santos, Joao Vasco, Milicevic, Milena M. M. Santric, Sartorius, Benn, Satpathy, Maheswar, Schneider, Ione J. C., Schwebel, David C., Sepanlou, Sadaf G., Shabaninejad, Hosein, Shaikh, Masood A. Ali, Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran, Sharif, Mehdi, Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi, Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful, She, Jun, Sheikh, Aziz, Shen, Jiabin, Sheth, Kevin N., Shibuya, Kenji, Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay, Shigematsu, Mika, Shiri, Rahman, Shiue, Ivy, Shoman, Haitham, Siabani, Soraya, Siddiqi, Tariq J., Silva, Joao Pedro, Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves, Sinha, Dhirendra Narain, Smith, Mari, Soares Filho, Adauto Martins, Sobhani, Soheila, Soofi, Moslem, Soriano, Joan B., Soyiri, Ireneous N., Stein, Dan J., Stokes, Mark A., Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale, Sunguya, Bruno F., Sunshine, Jacob E., Sykes, Bryan L., Szoeke, Cassandra E. I., Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael, Ao, Braden James Te, Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash, Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin, Temsah, Mohamad-Hani, Temsah, Omar, Topor-Madry, Roman, Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel, Bach Xuan Tran, Bach Xuan Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Khanh Bao Tran, Car, Lorainne Tudor, Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna, Ullah, Irfan, Usman, Muhammad Shariq, Uthman, Olalekan A., Valdez, Pascual R., Vasankari, Tommi Juhani, Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy, Violante, Francesco S., Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw, Waheed, Yasir, Wang, Yuan-Pang, Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey, Werdecker, Andrea, Wijeratne, Tissa, Winkler, Andrea Sylvia, Wyper, Grant M. A., Yano, Yuichiro, Yaseri, Mehdi, Yasin, Yasin Jemal, Ye, Pengpeng, Yimer, Ebrahim M., Yip, Paul, Yisma, Engida, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Yoon, Seok-Jun, Yost, Michael G., Younis, Mustafa Z., Yousefifard, Mahmoud, Yu, Chuanhua, Zaidi, Zoubida, Bin Zaman, Sojib, Zamani, Mohammad, Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew, Zodpey, Sanjay, Feigin, Valery L., Vos, Theo, and Murray, Christopher J. L. “Global, regional, and national burden of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016”. LANCET NEUROLOGY 18.1 (2019): 56-87.

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Traumatic brain injury: integrated approaches to improve prevention, clinical care, and research.
Maas AIR, Menon DK, Adelson PD, Andelic N, Bell MJ, Belli A, Bragge P, Brazinova A, Buki A, Chesnut RM, Citerio G, Coburn M, Cooper DJ, Crowder AT, Czeiter E, Czosnyka M, Diaz-Arrastia R, Dreier JP, Duhaime AC, Ercole A, van Essen TA, Feigin VL, Gao G, Giacino J, Gonzalez-Lara LE, Gruen RL, Gupta D, Hartings JA, Hill S, Jiang JY, Ketharanathan N, Kompanje EJO, Lanyon L, Laureys S, Lecky F, Levin H, Lingsma HF, Maegele M, Majdan M, Manley G, Marsteller J, Mascia L, McFadyen C, Mondello S, Newcombe V, Palotie A, Parizel PM, Peul W, Piercy J, Polinder S, Puybasset L, Rasmussen TE, Rossaint R, Smielewski P, Soderberg J, Stanworth SJ, Stein MB, von Steinbuchel N, Stewart W, Steyerberg EW, Stocchetti N, Synnot A, Te Ao B, Tenovuo O, Theadom A, Tibboel D, Videtta W, Wang KKW, Williams WH, Wilson L, Yaffe K; InTBIR Participants and Investigators, Adams H, Agnoletti V, Allanson J, Amrein K, Andaluz N, Anke A, Antoni A, van As AB, Audibert G, Azasevac A, Azouvi P, Azzolini ML, Baciu C, Badenes R, Barlow KM, Bartels R, Bauerfeind U, Beauchamp M, Beer D, Beer R, Belda FJ, Bellander BM, Bellier R, Benali H, Benard T, Beqiri V, Beretta L, Bernard F, Bertolini G, Bilotta F, Blaabjerg M, den Boogert H, Boutis K, Bouzat P, Brooks B, Brorsson C, Bullinger M, Burns E, Calappi E, Cameron P, Carise E, Castano-Leon AM, Causin F, Chevallard G, Chieregato A, Christie B, Cnossen M, Coles J, Collett J, Della Corte F, Craig W, Csato G, Csomos A, Curry N, Dahyot-Fizelier C, Dawes H, DeMatteo C, Depreitere B, Dewey D, van Dijck J, Đilvesi Đ, Dippel D, Dizdarevic K, Donoghue E, Duek O, Duliere GL, Dzeko A, Eapen G, Emery CA, English S, Esser P, Ezer E, Fabricius M, Feng J, Fergusson D, Figaji A, Fleming J, Foks K, Francony G, Freedman S, Freo U, Frisvold SK, Gagnon I, Galanaud D, Gantner D, Giraud B, Glocker B, Golubovic J, Gomez Lopez PA, Gordon WA, Gradisek P, Gravel J, Griesdale D, Grossi F, Haagsma JA, Haberg AK, Haitsma I, Van Hecke W, Helbok R, Helseth E, van Heugten C, Hoedemaekers C, Hofer S, Horton L, Hui J, Huijben JA, Hutchinson PJ, Jacobs B, van der Jagt M, Jankowski S, Janssens K, Jelaca B, Jones KM, Kamnitsas K, Kaps R, Karan M, Katila A, Kaukonen KM, De Keyser V, Kivisaari R, Kolias AG, Kolumban B, Kolundzija K, Kondziella D, Koskinen LO, Kovacs N, Kramer A, Kutsogiannis D, Kyprianou T, Lagares A, Lamontagne F, Latini R, Lauzier F, Lazar I, Ledig C, Lefering R, Legrand V, Levi L, Lightfoot R, Lozano A, MacDonald S, Major S, Manara A, Manhes P, Marechal H, Martino C, Masala A, Masson S, Mattern J, McFadyen B, McMahon C, Meade M, Melegh B, Menovsky T, Moore L, Morgado Correia M, Morganti-Kossmann MC, Muehlan H, Mukherjee P, Murray L, van der Naalt J, Negru A, Nelson D, Nieboer D, Noirhomme Q, Nyiradi J, Oddo M, Okonkwo DO, Oldenbeuving AW, Ortolano F, Osmond M, Payen JF, Perlbarg V, Persona P, Pichon N, Piippo-Karjalainen A, Pili-Floury S, Pirinen M, Ple H, Poca MA, Posti J, Van Praag D, Ptito A, Radoi A, Ragauskas A, Raj R, Real RGL, Reed N, Rhodes J, Robertson C, Rocka S, Roe C, Roise O, Roks G, Rosand J, Rosenfeld JV, Rosenlund C, Rosenthal G, Rossi S, Rueckert D, de Ruiter GCW, Sacchi M, Sahakian BJ, Sahuquillo J, Sakowitz O, Salvato G, Sanchez-Porras R, Sandor J, Sangha G, Schafer N, Schmidt S, Schneider KJ, Schnyer D, Schohl H, Schoonman GG, Schou RF, Sir O, Skandsen T, Smeets D, Sorinola A, Stamatakis E, Stevanovic A, Stevens RD, Sundstrom N, Taccone FS, Takala R, Tanskanen P, Taylor MS, Telgmann R, Temkin N, Teodorani G, Thomas M, Tolias CM, Trapani T, Turgeon A, Vajkoczy P, Valadka AB, Valeinis E, Vallance S, Vamos Z, Vargiolu A, Vega E, Verheyden J, Vik A, Vilcinis R, Vleggeert-Lankamp C, Vogt L, Volovici V, Voormolen DC, Vulekovic P, Vande Vyvere T, Van Waesberghe J, Wessels L, Wildschut E, Williams G, Winkler MKL, Wolf S, Wood G, Xirouchaki N, Younsi A, Zaaroor M, Zelinkova V, Zemek R, Zumbo F., Lancet Neurol 16(12), 2017
PMID: 29122524
Cost of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: evidence from a population-based study.
Te Ao B, Brown P, Tobias M, Ameratunga S, Barker-Collo S, Theadom A, McPherson K, Starkey N, Dowell A, Jones K, Feigin VL; BIONIC Study Group., Neurology 83(18), 2014
PMID: 25261503
In Europe, echoes of America as concussions spur debate
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Incidence and costs of bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries in the Netherlands.
Scholten AC, Polinder S, Panneman MJ, van Beeck EF, Haagsma JA., Accid Anal Prev 81(), 2015
PMID: 25939135
Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents in south-western Sweden
Emanuelson I, Wendt LV., 1997
Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury.
Singh A, Tetreault L, Kalsi-Ryan S, Nouri A, Fehlings MG., Clin Epidemiol 6(), 2014
PMID: 25278785
Head injuries in Canada: a decade of change (1994–1995 to 2003–2004)
Incidence of traumatic brain injury in the United States, 2003.
Rutland-Brown W, Langlois JA, Thomas KE, Xi YL., J Head Trauma Rehabil 21(6), 2006
PMID: 17122685
The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: a review
Bruns J, Hauser WA., 2003
Review paper: epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury: comparisons between developed and developing countries.
Chiu WT, Lin HC, Lam C, Chu SF, Chiang YH, Tsai SH., Asia Pac J Public Health 22(1), 2010
PMID: 20032030
Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury in developing countries: a systematic review.
Rahimi-Movaghar V, Sayyah MK, Akbari H, Khorramirouz R, Rasouli MR, Moradi-Lakeh M, Shokraneh F, Vaccaro AR., Neuroepidemiology 41(2), 2013
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Modeling causes of death: an integrated approach using CODEm.
Foreman KJ, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJ., Popul Health Metr 10(), 2012
PMID: 22226226
Disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease 2013 study.
Salomon JA, Haagsma JA, Davis A, de Noordhout CM, Polinder S, Havelaar AH, Cassini A, Devleesschauwer B, Kretzschmar M, Speybroeck N, Murray CJ, Vos T., Lancet Glob Health 3(11), 2015
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High incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Estonia.
Sabre L, Pedai G, Rekand T, Asser T, Linnamagi U, Korv J., Spinal Cord 50(10), 2012
PMID: 22565551
Road traffic injuries
Goal 3 targets
Accuracy of an International Classification of Diseases Code Surveillance System in the Identification of Traumatic Brain Injury.
Barker-Collo S, Theadom A, Jones K, Feigin VL, Kahan M., Neuroepidemiology 47(1), 2016
PMID: 27504965
Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: a population-based study.
Feigin VL, Theadom A, Barker-Collo S, Starkey NJ, McPherson K, Kahan M, Dowell A, Brown P, Parag V, Kydd R, Jones K, Jones A, Ameratunga S; BIONIC Study Group, Feigin V, Barker-Collo S, McPherson K, Theadom A, Jones K, Jones A, Te Ao B, Barber PA, Parag V, Ameratunga S, Starkey N, Dowell A, Kahan M, Christey G, Hardaker N, Fernando K, Brown P, Feigin V, Barker-Collo S, Kahan M, Te Ao B, Fairbairn-Dunlop P, Sobrun-Maharaj A, Hapuku J, De Silva K., Lancet Neurol 12(1), 2012
PMID: 23177532
Traumatic brain injury in spinal cord injury: frequency and risk factors
Budisin B, Bradbury CCLB, Sharma B., 2016
Long-term survival after traumatic brain injury: a population-based analysis controlled for nonhead trauma
Brown AW, Leibson CL, Mandrekar J, Ransom JE, Malec JF., 2014
What is the Relationship of Traumatic Brain Injury to Dementia?
Mendez MF., J. Alzheimers Dis. 57(3), 2017
PMID: 28269777
Traumatic brain injury: a potential cause of violent crime?
Williams WH, Chitsabesan P, Fazel S, McMillan T, Hughes N, Parsonage M, Tonks J., Lancet Psychiatry 5(10), 2018
PMID: 29496587
Long-term risk of dementia among people with traumatic brain injury in Denmark: a population-based observational cohort study.
Fann JR, Ribe AR, Pedersen HS, Fenger-Gron M, Christensen J, Benros ME, Vestergaard M., Lancet Psychiatry 5(5), 2018
PMID: 29653873

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