Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase

Bläsing B, Coogan J, Biondi J, Schack T (2018)
Frontiers in Psychology 9: 2371.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
OA 778.65 KB
Bläsing, BettinaUniBi; Coogan, Jenny; Biondi, José; Schack, ThomasUniBi
Abstract / Bemerkung
While learning from observation is generally regarded as major learning mode for motor actions, evidence from dance practice suggests that learning dance movement through verbal instruction might provide a promising way to support dancers' individual interpretation of and identification with the movement material. In this multidisciplinary project, we conducted a study on the learning of dance movement through two modalities, observation of a human model in a video clip and listening to the audio-recording of a verbal movement instruction. Eighteen second year dance students learned two dance phrases, one from observation and one from verbal instruction, and were video-recorded performing the learned material. In a second learning step, they were presented the complementary information from the other modality, and their performance was recorded again. A third recording was carried out in a retention test 10 days after learning. Completeness scores representing the recall of the dance phrases, expert ratings addressing the performance quality and questionnaires reflecting the participants' personal impressions were used to evaluate and compare the performance at different stages of the learning process. Results show that learning from observation resulted in better learning outcomes in terms of both recall and approximation of the model phrase, whereas individual interpretation of the learned movement material was rated equally good after initially verbal and initially visual learning. According to the questionnaires, most participants preferred learning initially from observation and found it more familiar, which points toward an influence of learning habit caused by common training practice. The findings suggest that learning dance movement initially from observation is more beneficial than from verbal instruction, and add aspects with regards to multimodal movement learning with potential relevance for dance teaching and training.
Frontiers in Psychology
Open-Access-Publikationskosten wurden durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft und die Universität Bielefeld gefördert.
Page URI


Bläsing B, Coogan J, Biondi J, Schack T. Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase . Frontiers in Psychology. 2018;9: 2371.
Bläsing, B., Coogan, J., Biondi, J., & Schack, T. (2018). Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase . Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2371. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02371
Bläsing, Bettina, Coogan, Jenny, Biondi, José, and Schack, Thomas. 2018. “Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase ”. Frontiers in Psychology 9: 2371.
Bläsing, B., Coogan, J., Biondi, J., and Schack, T. (2018). Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase . Frontiers in Psychology 9:2371.
Bläsing, B., et al., 2018. Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase . Frontiers in Psychology, 9: 2371.
B. Bläsing, et al., “Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase ”, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 9, 2018, : 2371.
Bläsing, B., Coogan, J., Biondi, J., Schack, T.: Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase . Frontiers in Psychology. 9, : 2371 (2018).
Bläsing, Bettina, Coogan, Jenny, Biondi, José, and Schack, Thomas. “Watching or listening: how visual and verbal information contribute to learning a complex dance phrase ”. Frontiers in Psychology 9 (2018): 2371.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Creative Commons Namensnennung 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0):
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
MD5 Prüfsumme

74 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Effect of verbal instructions and image size on visual search strategies in basketball free throw shooting.
Al-Abood SA, Bennett SJ, Hernandez FM, Ashford D, Davids K., J Sports Sci 20(3), 2002
PMID: 11999481
Motor-skill experts in sports, dance, and other domains
Allard F., Starkes J.., 1991
Grounded cognition.
Barsalou LW., Annu Rev Psychol 59(), 2008
PMID: 17705682
Beyond the playing field: sport psychology meets embodied cognition
Beilock S.., 2008

Bernstein N.., 1947

Bernstein N.., 1967
Bernstein N.., 1971

Bernstein N.., 1975
On dexterity and its development.
Bernstein N.., 1996
The problem of the interrelation of co-ordination and localization (orig. archiv biologičeskich nauk, 38, T. 1, 1–34)
Neurocognitive control in dance perception and performance.
Blasing B, Calvo-Merino B, Cross ES, Jola C, Honisch J, Stevens CJ., Acta Psychol (Amst) 139(2), 2012
PMID: 22305351
Mental representation of spatial movement parameters in dance
Bläsing B., Schack T.., 2012
Cognitive structures of complex movements in dance
Bläsing B., Tenenbaum G., Schack T.., 2009
Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers.
Calvo-Merino B, Glaser DE, Grezes J, Passingham RE, Haggard P., Cereb. Cortex 15(8), 2004
PMID: 15616133
Seeing or doing? Influence of visual and motor familiarity in action observation.
Calvo-Merino B, Grezes J, Glaser DE, Passingham RE, Haggard P., Curr. Biol. 16(19), 2006
PMID: 17027486
Towards a sensorimotor aesthetics of performing art.
Calvo-Merino B, Jola C, Glaser DE, Haggard P., Conscious Cogn 17(3), 2008
PMID: 18207423
Working memory for ballet moves and spatial locations in professional ballet dancers
Cortese A., Rossi-Arnaud C.., 2010
Building a motor simulation de novo: observation of dance by dancers.
Cross ES, Hamilton AF, Grafton ST., Neuroimage 31(3), 2006
PMID: 16530429
The influence of visual training on predicting complex action sequences.
Cross ES, Stadler W, Parkinson J, Schutz-Bosbach S, Prinz W., Hum Brain Mapp 34(2), 2011
PMID: 22102260
What memory is for.
Glenberg AM., Behav Brain Sci 20(1), 1997
PMID: 10096994
Embodiment as a unifying perspective for psychology.
Glenberg AM., Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 1(4), 2010
PMID: 26271505
Effects of mental imagery styles on shoulder and hip rotations during preparation of pirouettes.
Golomer E, Bouillette A, Mertz C, Keller J., J Mot Behav 40(4), 2008
PMID: 18628105
A cognitive neuropsychological model of limb praxis
Gonzalez L., Ochipa C., Heilman K.., 1991
What is modelled during observational learning?
Hodges NJ, Williams AM, Hayes SJ, Breslin G., J Sports Sci 25(5), 2007
PMID: 17365540

James W.., 1981
Mental imagery in the motor context.
Jeannerod M., Neuropsychologia 33(11), 1995
PMID: 8584178
Actions from within
Jeannerod M.., 2004
Choreographed science: merging dance and cognitive neuroscience
Jola C.., 2018
Arousal decrease in sleeping beauty: audiences' neurophysiological correlates to watching a narrative dance performance of two-and-a-half hours
Jola C., Pollick F., Grosbras M.., 2011
Verbal and visual learning styles
Kirby J., Moore P., Schofield N.., 1988
Creative cognition in choreography
Kirsh D.., 2011
The role of verbal cues in skill learning
Landin D.., 1994
A psychometric study of the index of learning styles
Litzinger T., Lee S., Wise J., Felder R.., 2007

Lotze H.., 1852
Modeling and verbal feedback influences on skill learning
Magill R.., 1993
Unreflective actions? Complex motor skill acquisition to enhance spatial cognition
Moreau D.., 2015
Language-at all times
Nomikou I., Schilling M., Heller V., Rohlfing K.., 2016
Where, when, and how: a quantitative account of dance imagery.
Nordin SM, Cumming J., Res Q Exerc Sport 78(4), 2007
PMID: 17941544
Unspoken knowledge: implicit learning of structured human dance movement.
Opacic T, Stevens C, Tillmann B., J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 35(6), 2009
PMID: 19857027
Perception and action planning
Prinz W.., 1997
Learning to dance means leaning to think!
Puttke M.., 2018
The primacy of action in development
Reed E., Bril B.., 1996
The mirror-neuron system.
Rizzolatti G, Craighero L., Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27(), 2004
PMID: 15217330
The supramodal brain: implications for auditory perception
Rosenblum L., Dias J., Dorsi J.., 2017
Common and differential neural mechanisms supporting imitation of meaningful and meaningless actions.
Rumiati RI, Weiss PH, Tessari A, Assmus A, Zilles K, Herzog H, Fink GR., J Cogn Neurosci 17(9), 2005
PMID: 16197695
Effect of metaphorical verbal instruction on modeling of sequential dance skills by young children.
Sawada M, Mori S, Ishii M., Percept Mot Skills 95(3 Pt 2), 2002
PMID: 12578249
The cognitive architecture of complex movement
Schack T.., 2004
Elements and construction of motor control. Global perspectives and fundamental concepts
Schack T., Bläsing B., Hughes C., Flash T., Schilling M.., 2014
A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning
Schmidt R.., 1975

Schmidt R., Lee T.., 1998
Captured by motion: dance, action understanding, and social cognition.
Sevdalis V, Keller PE., Brain Cogn 77(2), 2011
PMID: 21880410
Space and movement in working memory.
Smyth MM, Pendleton LR., Q J Exp Psychol A 42(2), 1990
PMID: 2367683
Intelligence with representation.
Steels L., Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 361(1811), 2003
PMID: 14599324
Memory and dance: ‘Bodies of Knowledge' in contemporary dance
Stevens C.., 2017
Thinking in action: thought made visible in contemporary dance.
Stevens C, McKechnie S., Cogn Process 6(4), 2005
PMID: 18239953
Dancing your moves away: How memory retrieval shapes complex motor action.
Tempel T, Loran I, Frings C., J Exp Psychol Appl 21(3), 2015
PMID: 26192709
Push or pull: imitation vs. emulation in great apes and human children
Tennie C., Call J., Tomasello M.., 2006
Recognition of dance-like actions: memory for static posture or dynamic movement?
Vicary SA, Robbins RA, Calvo-Merino B, Stevens CJ., Mem Cognit 42(5), 2014
PMID: 24554278
Posture-based processing in visual short-term memory for actions.
Vicary SA, Stevens CJ., Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 67(12), 2014
PMID: 24958242
Effects of balance cues and experience on serial recall of human movement
Wachowicz F., Stevens C., Byron T.., 2011
The cognitive benefits of movement reduction: evidence from dance marking.
Warburton EC, Wilson M, Lynch M, Cuykendall S., Psychol Sci 24(9), 2013
PMID: 23863756
Doing Duo - a case study of entrainment in William Forsythe's choreography "Duo".
Waterhouse E, Watts R, Blasing BE., Front Hum Neurosci 8(), 2014
PMID: 25374522
Six views of embodied cognition.
Wilson M., Psychon Bull Rev 9(4), 2002
PMID: 12613670
Directing attention to movement effects enhances learning: a review.
Wulf G, Prinz W., Psychon Bull Rev 8(4), 2001
PMID: 11848583
Event perception: a mind-brain perspective.
Zacks JM, Speer NK, Swallow KM, Braver TS, Reynolds JR., Psychol Bull 133(2), 2007
PMID: 17338600

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 30555390
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar