Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting

Schindler S, Kißler J (2018)
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 55(10): e13207.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Es wurden keine Dateien hochgeladen. Nur Publikationsnachweis!
Abstract / Bemerkung
In item-method directed forgetting, worse memory performance occurs for to-be-forgotten (TBF) than for to-be-remembered (TBR) items. However, recently TBF items have been found to be recognized more accurately than uninformative (UI) items not associated with any specific task. Here, we compare ERPs elicited by cues signaling the remember or the forget instruction with those elicited by uninformative cues. Participants were presented with a series of complex pictures, each followed by a symbolic TBR, TBF, or UI cue. On a yes-no recognition test, accuracy was higher for TBR than for both TBF and UI items. However, TBF items were recognized more accurately than UI items. ERPs elicited by the TBR cue were larger than ERPs elicited by both TBF and UI cues at the frontal P2, the late frontal negativity, and the late parietal positivity complex. This is consistent with more attention capture, selective rehearsal, and long-term memory encoding of TBR. In contrast, both TBF and UI cues induced a larger frontal N2 than TBR cues. Critically, TBF elicited a larger late right-frontal positivity than both UI and TBR cues and a larger late parietal positivity than UI cues. Moreover, the late right-frontal positivity was correlated with better recognition performance. It may therefore reflect processing orientation rather than inhibition per se. Results suggest that, when compared to UI cues, both TBR and TBF cues are processed actively. Distinct processing is seen at right frontal and centroparietal positive ERPs that may mediate better subsequent recognition of TBF than of UI items.
directed forgetting; EEG/ERP; episodic memory; inhibition; ironic; effects
Page URI


Schindler S, Kißler J. Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. 2018;55(10): e13207.
Schindler, S., & Kißler, J. (2018). Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, 55(10), e13207. doi:10.1111/psyp.13207
Schindler, S., and Kißler, J. (2018). Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 55:e13207.
Schindler, S., & Kißler, J., 2018. Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, 55(10): e13207.
S. Schindler and J. Kißler, “Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting”, PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, vol. 55, 2018, : e13207.
Schindler, S., Kißler, J.: Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY. 55, : e13207 (2018).
Schindler, Sebastian, and Kißler, Johanna. “Too hard to forget? ERPs to remember, forget, and uninformative cues in the encoding phase of item-method directed forgetting”. PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 55.10 (2018): e13207.

76 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

The longer we have to forget the more we remember: The ironic effect of postcue duration in item-based directed forgetting
Bancroft, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 39(3), 2013

Basden, 1998
Directed forgetting in implicit and explicit memory tests: A comparison of methods
Basden, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19(), 1993

Beck, 2001
ERP evidence for successful voluntary avoidance of conscious recollection.
Bergstrom ZM, Velmans M, de Fockert J, Richardson-Klavehn A., Brain Res. 1151(), 2007
PMID: 17428451
Positive forgetting: The noninterference of items intentionally forgotten
Bjork, Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 9(), 1970
Slow cortical potentials during retention of object, spatial, and verbal information.
Bosch V, Mecklinger A, Friederici AD., Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 10(3), 2001
PMID: 11167047
Forgetting emotional and neutral words: an ERP study.
Brandt KR, Nielsen MK, Holmes A., Brain Res. 1501(), 2013
PMID: 23337616

Brickenkamp, 1962

Cohen, 1988
The N2 in go/no-go tasks reflects conflict monitoring not response inhibition.
Donkers FC, van Boxtel GJ., Brain Cogn 56(2), 2004
PMID: 15518933
P300 and recall in an incidental memory paradigm.
Fabiani M, Karis D, Donchin E., Psychophysiology 23(3), 1986
PMID: 3749410

Fuster, 2015
Two stages of directed forgetting: Electrophysiological evidence from a short-term memory task.
Gao H, Cao B, Qi M, Wang J, Zhang Q, Li F., Psychophysiology 53(6), 2016
PMID: 26892593
Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study.
Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(14), 1999
PMID: 10393989
Forgetting unwanted memories: directed forgetting and thought suppression methods.
Geraerts E, McNally RJ., Acta Psychol (Amst) 127(3), 2008
PMID: 18164273
Directed forgetting of complex pictures in an item method paradigm.
Hauswald A, Kissler J., Memory 16(8), 2008
PMID: 18608977
ERP dynamics underlying successful directed forgetting of neutral but not negative pictures.
Hauswald A, Schulz H, Iordanov T, Kissler J., Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 6(4), 2010
PMID: 20601423
Temporal dynamics of early perceptual processing.
Hillyard SA, Teder-Salejarvi WA, Munte TF., Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 8(2), 1998
PMID: 9635203
Directed forgetting of visual symbols: evidence for nonverbal selective rehearsal.
Hourihan KL, Ozubko JD, MacLeod CM., Mem Cognit 37(8), 2009
PMID: 19933451
When remembering causes forgetting: electrophysiological correlates of retrieval-induced forgetting.
Johansson M, Aslan A, Bauml KH, Gabel A, Mecklinger A., Cereb. Cortex 17(6), 2006
PMID: 16880224
ERP components associated with successful and unsuccessful stopping in a stop-signal task.
Kok A, Ramautar JR, De Ruiter MB, Band GP, Ridderinkhof KR., Psychophysiology 41(1), 2004
PMID: 14692996
When 'go' and 'nogo' are equally frequent: ERP components and cortical tomography.
Lavric A, Pizzagalli DA, Forstmeier S., Eur. J. Neurosci. 20(9), 2004
PMID: 15525290
Intentional forgetting reduces color-naming interference: Evidence from item-method directed forgetting
Lee, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 39(), 2013
Effects of post-cue interval on intentional forgetting.
Lee YS, Lee HM, Tsai SH., Br J Psychol 98(Pt 2), 2007
PMID: 17456272

EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8.
Litvak V, Mattout J, Kiebel S, Phillips C, Henson R, Kilner J, Barnes G, Oostenveld R, Daunizeau J, Flandin G, Penny W, Friston K., Comput Intell Neurosci 2011(), 2011
PMID: 21437221
Electrophysiological correlates of feature analysis during visual search.
Luck SJ, Hillyard SA., Psychophysiology 31(3), 1994
PMID: 8008793
The control of long-term memory: brain systems and cognitive processes.
Mecklinger A., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34(7), 2009
PMID: 19944118
ERP correlates of intentional forgetting.
Mecklinger A, Parra M, Waldhauser GT., Brain Res. 1255(), 2008
PMID: 19103178
Interference resolution: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging tasks.
Nee DE, Wager TD, Jonides J., Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7(1), 2007
PMID: 17598730
Ad-hoc and context-dependent adjustments of selective attention in conflict control: an ERP study with visual probes.
Nigbur R, Schneider J, Sommer W, Dimigen O, Sturmer B., Neuroimage 107(), 2014
PMID: 25482266
Forgetting of emotional information is hard: an fMRI study of directed forgetting.
Nowicka A, Marchewka A, Jednorog K, Tacikowski P, Brechmann A., Cereb. Cortex 21(3), 2010
PMID: 20584747
Predictive validity of event-related potentials (ERPs) in relation to the directed forgetting effects.
Paz-Caballero MD, Menor J, Jimenez JM., Clin Neurophysiol 115(2), 2004
PMID: 14744579
ElectroMagnetoEncephalography software: overview and integration with other EEG/MEG toolboxes.
Peyk P, De Cesarei A, Junghofer M., Comput Intell Neurosci 2011(), 2011
PMID: 21577273
Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data?
Poldrack RA., Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 10(2), 2006
PMID: 16406760
Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b.
Polich J., Clin Neurophysiol 118(10), 2007
PMID: 17573239
Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.
Quinlan CK, Taylor TL, Fawcett JM., Can J Exp Psychol 64(1), 2010
PMID: 20384417
Strategy control and directed forgetting
Reitman, Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 12(), 1973
Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes.
Schindler S, Wolff W, Kissler JM, Brand R., Front Behav Neurosci 9(), 2015
PMID: 26074798
Electrophysiological activity underlying inhibitory control processes in normal adults.
Schmajuk M, Liotti M, Busse L, Woldorff MG., Neuropsychologia 44(3), 2005
PMID: 16095637
Pragmatics of measuring recognition memory: Applications to dementia and amnesia
Snodgrass, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117(1), 1988

Spielberger, 1999
Does an instruction to forget enhance memory for other presented items?
Taylor TL, Fawcett JM., Conscious Cogn 21(3), 2012
PMID: 22687390
Memory instruction interacts with both visual and motoric inhibition of return.
Thompson KM, Taylor TL., Atten Percept Psychophys 77(3), 2015
PMID: 25592783
An electrophysiological test of directed forgetting: the role of retrieval inhibition.
Ullsperger M, Mecklinger A, Muller U., J Cogn Neurosci 12(6), 2000
PMID: 11177414
Ironic processes of mental control.
Wegner DM., Psychol Rev 101(1), 1994
PMID: 8121959
Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thought.
Wegner DM, Erber R, Zanakos S., J Pers Soc Psychol 65(6), 1993
PMID: 8295117
Paradoxical effects of thought suppression.
Wegner DM, Schneider DJ, Carter SR 3rd, White TL., J Pers Soc Psychol 53(1), 1987
PMID: 3612492
Motivated forgetting and the study of repression.
Weiner B., J Pers 36(2), 1968
PMID: 5660729
Neural markers of inhibition in human memory retrieval.
Wimber M, Bauml KH, Bergstrom Z, Markopoulos G, Heinze HJ, Richardson-Klavehn A., J. Neurosci. 28(50), 2008
PMID: 19074015
Forgetting and remembering in free recall: Intentional and unintentional
Woodward, Journal of Experimental Psychology 89(), 1971
Forgetting as an active process: an FMRI investigation of item-method-directed forgetting.
Wylie GR, Foxe JJ, Taylor TL., Cereb. Cortex 18(3), 2007
PMID: 17617657
Directed forgetting of negative self-referential information is difficult: an FMRI study.
Yang W, Liu P, Cui Q, Wei D, Li W, Qiu J, Zhang Q., PLoS ONE 8(10), 2013
PMID: 24124475
‘Forget me (not)?’- Remembering forget-items versus un-cued items in directed forgetting
Zwissler, Frontiers in Psychology 1741(), 2015
Shaping memory accuracy by left prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation.
Zwissler B, Sperber C, Aigeldinger S, Schindler S, Kissler J, Plewnia C., J. Neurosci. 34(11), 2014
PMID: 24623779


Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®


PMID: 30112763
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar