Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper

Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bixby H, Danaei G, Hajifathalian K, Taddei C, Carrillo-Larco RM, Djalalinia S, Khatibzadeh S, Lugero C, et al. (2018)
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47(3): 872–883i.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
 
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group-and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
Stichworte
Blood pressure; hypertension; population health; global health; non-communicable disease
Erscheinungsjahr
2018
Zeitschriftentitel
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Band
47
Ausgabe
3
Seite(n)
872–883i
ISSN
0300-5771
eISSN
1464-3685
Page URI
https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2930275

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Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2018;47(3):872–883i.
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., et al. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(3), 872–883i. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy016
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., Carrillo-Larco, R. M., Djalalinia, S., Khatibzadeh, S., et al. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47, 872–883i.
Zhou, B., et al., 2018. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(3), p 872–883i.
B. Zhou, et al., “Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, 2018, pp. 872–883i.
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., Carrillo-Larco, R.M., Djalalinia, S., Khatibzadeh, S., Lugero, C., Peykari, N., Zhang, W.Z., Bennett, J., Bilano, V., Stevens, G.A., Cowan, M.J., Riley, L.M., Chen, Z., Hambleton, I.R., Jackson, R.T., Kengne, A.P., Khang, Y.-H., Laxmaiah, A., Liu, J., Malekzadeh, R., Neuhauser, H.K., Soric, M., Starc, G., Sundstrom, J., Woodward, M., Ezzati, M., Abarca-Gomez, L., Abdeen, Z.A., Abu-Rmeileh, N.M., Acosta-Cazares, B., Adams, R.J., Aekplakorn, W., Afsana, K., Aguilar-Salinas, C.A., Agyemang, C., Ahmad, N.A., Ahmadvand, A., Ahrens, W., Ajlouni, K., Akhtaeva, N., Al-Raddadi, R., Ali, M.M., Ali, O., Alkerwi, A.'a, Aly, E., Amarapurkar, D.N., Amouyel, P., Amuzu, A., Andersen, L.B., Anderssen, S.A., Angquist, L.H., Anjana, R.M., Ansong, D., Aounallah-Skhiri, H., Araujo, J., Ariansen, I., Aris, T., Arlappa, N., Arveiler, D., Aryal, K.K., Aspelund, T., Assah, F.K., Assuncao, M.C.F., Avdicova, M., Azevedo, 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M., Wu, A.G., Wu, F.C., Wu, S., Xu, H., Yan, W., Yang, X., Ye, X., Yiallouros, P.K., Yoshihara, A., Younger-Coleman, N.O., Yusoff, A.F., Zainuddin, A.A., Zambon, S., Zampelas, A., Zdrojewski, T., Zeng, Y., Zhao, D., Zhao, W., Zheng, W., Zheng, Y., Zhu, D., Zhussupov, B., Zimmermann, E., Cisneros, J.Z.: Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 47, 872–883i (2018).
Zhou, Bin, Bentham, James, Di Cesare, Mariachiara, Bixby, Honor, Danaei, Goodarz, Hajifathalian, Kaveh, Taddei, Cristina, Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M., Djalalinia, Shirin, Khatibzadeh, Shahab, Lugero, Charles, Peykari, Niloofar, Zhang, Wan Zhu, Bennett, James, Bilano, Ver, Stevens, Gretchen A., Cowan, Melanie J., Riley, Leanne M., Chen, Zhengming, Hambleton, Ian R., Jackson, Rod T., Kengne, Andre Pascal, Khang, Young-Ho, Laxmaiah, Avula, Liu, Jing, Malekzadeh, Reza, Neuhauser, Hannelore K., Soric, Maroje, Starc, Gregor, Sundstrom, Johan, Woodward, Mark, Ezzati, Majid, Abarca-Gomez, Leandra, Abdeen, Ziad A., Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M., Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin, Adams, Robert J., Aekplakorn, Wichai, Afsana, Kaosar, Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A., Agyemang, Charles, Ahmad, Noor Ani, Ahmadvand, Alireza, Ahrens, Wolfgang, Ajlouni, Kamel, Akhtaeva, Nazgul, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa, Ali, Mohamed M., Ali, Osman, Alkerwi, Ala'a, Aly, Eman, Amarapurkar, Deepak N., Amouyel, Philippe, Amuzu, Antoinette, Andersen, Lars Bo, Anderssen, Sigmund A., Angquist, Lars H., Anjana, Ranjit Mohan, Ansong, Daniel, Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer, Araujo, Joana, Ariansen, Inger, Aris, Tahir, Arlappa, Nimmathota, Arveiler, Dominique, Aryal, Krishna K., Aspelund, Thor, Assah, Felix K., Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F., Avdicova, Maria, Azevedo, Ana, Azizi, Fereidoun, Babu, Bontha V., Bahijri, Suhad, Balakrishna, Nagalla, Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed, Banach, Maciej, Bandosz, Piotr, Banegas, Jose R., Barbagallo, Carlo M., Barcelo, Alberto, Barkat, Amina, Barros, Aluisio J. D., Barros, Mauro V., Bata, Iqbal, Batieha, Anwar M., Batyrbek, Assembekov, Baur, Louise A., Beaglehole, Robert, Ben Romdhane, Habiba, Benet, Mikhail, Benson, Lowell S., Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio, Bernotiene, Gailute, Bettiol, Heloisa, Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor, Bharadwaj, Sumit, Bhargava, Santosh K., Bi, Yufang, Bikbov, Mukharram, Bista, Bihungum, Bjerregaard, Peter, Bjertness, Espen, Bjertness, Marius B., Bjorkelund, Cecilia, Blokstra, Anneke, Bo, Simona, Bobak, Martin, Boeing, Heiner, Boggia, Jose G., Boissonnet, Carlos P., Bongard, Vanina, Borchini, Rossana, Bovet, Pascal, Braeckman, Lutgart, Brajkovich, Imperia, Branca, Francesco, Breckenkamp, Jürgen, Brenner, Hermann, Brewster, Lizzy M., Bruno, Graziella, Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bugge, Anna, Burns, Con, Bursztyn, Michael, Cabrera de Leon, Antonio, Cacciottolo, Joseph, Cai, Hui, Cameron, Christine, Can, Gunay, Candido, Ana Paula C., Capuano, Vincenzo, Cardoso, Viviane C., Carlsson, Axel C., Carvalho, Maria J., Casanueva, Felipe F., Casas, Juan-Pablo, Caserta, Carmelo A., Chamukuttan, Snehalatha, Chan, Angelique W., Chan, Queenie, Chaturvedi, Himanshu K., Chaturvedi, Nishi, Chen, Chien-Jen, Chen, Fangfang, Chen, Huashuai, Chen, Shuohua, Chen, Zhengming, Cheng, Ching-Yu, Cherkaoui Dekkaki, Imane, Chetrit, Angela, Chiolero, Arnaud, Chiou, Shu-Ti, Chirita-Emandi, Adela, Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores, Cho, Belong, Cho, Yumi, Christofaro, Diego G., Chudek, Jerzy, Cifkova, Renata, Cinteza, Eliza, Claessens, Frank, Clays, Els, Concin, Hans, Cooper, Cyrus, Cooper, Rachel, Coppinger, Tara C., Costanzo, Simona, Cottel, Dominique, Cowell, Chris, Craig, Cora L., Crujeiras, Ana B., Cruz, Juan J., D'Arrigo, Graziella, d'Orsi, Eleonora, Dallongeville, Jean, Damasceno, Albertino, Danaei, Goodarz, Dankner, Rachel, Dantoft, Thomas M., Dauchet, Luc, Davletov, Kairat, De Backer, Guy, De Bacquer, Dirk, de Gaetano, Giovanni, De Henauw, Stefaan, de Oliveira, Paula Duarte, De Smedt, Delphine, Deepa, Mohan, Dehghan, Abbas, Delisle, Helene, Deschamps, Valerie, Dhana, Klodian, Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F., Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares, Diaz, Alejandro, Dickerson, Ty T., Djalalinia, Shirin, Do, Ha T. P., Dobson, Annette J., Donfrancesco, Chiara, Donoso, Silvana P., Doering, Angela, Dorobantu, Maria, Doua, Kouamelan, Drygas, Wojciech, Dulskiene, Virginija, Dzakula, Aleksandar, Dzerve, Vilnis, Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta, Eggertsen, Robert, Ekelund, Ulf, El Ati, Jalila, Elliott, Paul, Elosua, Roberto, Erasmus, Rajiv T., Erem, Cihangir, Eriksen, Louise, Eriksson, Johan G., Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge, Evans, Alun, Faeh, David, Fall, Caroline H., Farzadfar, Farshad, Felix-Redondo, Francisco J., Ferguson, Trevor S., Fernandes, Romulo A., Fernandez-Berges, Daniel, Ferrante, Daniel, Ferrari, Marika, Ferreccio, Catterina, Ferrieres, Jean, Finn, Joseph D., Fischer, Krista, Foger, Bernhard, Foo, Leng Huat, Forslund, Ann-Sofie, Forsner, Maria, Fouad, Heba M., Francis, Damian K., Franco, Maria do Carmo, Franco, Oscar H., Frontera, Guillermo, Fuchs, Flavio D., Fuchs, Sandra C., Fujita, Yuki, Furusawa, Takuro, Gaciong, Zbigniew, Galvano, Fabio, Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli, Gareta, Dickman, Garnett, Sarah P., Gaspoz, Jean-Michel, Gasull, Magda, Gates, Louise, Geleijnse, Johanna M., Ghasemian, Anoosheh, Ghimire, Anup, Giampaoli, Simona, Gianfagna, Francesco, Gill, Tiffany K., Giovannelli, Jonathan, Goldsmith, Rebecca A., Goncalves, Helen, Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela, Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P., Bonet Gorbea, Mariano, Gottrand, Frederic, Graff-Iversen, Sidsel, Grafnetter, Dusan, Grajda, Aneta, Grammatikopoulou, Maria G., Gregor, Ronald D., Grodzicki, Tomasz, Grontved, Anders, Grosso, Giuseppe, Gruden, Gabriella, Grujic, Vera, Gu, Dongfeng, Guan, Ong Peng, Gudmundsson, Elias F., Gudnason, Vilmundur, Guerrero, Ramiro, Guessous, Idris, Guimaraes, Andre L., Gulliford, Martin C., Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna, Gunter, Marc, Gupta, Prakash C., Gupta, Rajeev, Gureje, Oye, Gurzkowska, Beata, Gutierrez, Laura, Gutzwiller, Felix, Hadaegh, Farzad, Halkjaer, Jytte, Hambleton, Ian R., Hardy, Rebecca, Kumar, Rachakulla Hari, Hata, Jun, Hayes, Alison J., He, Jiang, He, Yuna, Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth, Henriques, Ana, Hernandez Cadena, Leticia, Herrala, Sauli, Heshmat, Ramin, Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani, Ho, Sai Yin, Ho, Suzanne C., Hobbs, Michael, Hofman, Albert, Dinc, Gonul Horasan, Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R., Hormiga, Claudia M., Horta, Bernardo L., Houti, Leila, Howitt, Christina, Htay, Thein Thein, Htet, Aung Soe, Htike, Maung Maung Than, Hu, Yonghua, Maria Huerta, Jose, Huisman, Martijn, Husseini, Abdullatif S., Huybrechts, Inge, Hwalla, Nahla, Iacoviello, Licia, Iannone, Anna G., Ibrahim, Mohsen M., Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim, Ikeda, Nayu, Ikram, M. Arfan, Irazola, Vilma E., Islam, Muhammad, Ismail, Aziz al-Safi, Ivkovic, Vanja, Iwasaki, Masanori, Jackson, Rod T., Jacobs, Jeremy M., Jaddou, Hashem, Jafar, Tazeen, Jamrozik, Konrad, Janszky, Imre, Jasienska, Grazyna, Jelakovic, Ana, Jelakovic, Bojan, Jennings, Garry, Jeong, Seung-lyeal, Jiang, Chao Qiang, Joffres, Michel, Johansson, Mattias, Jokelainen, Jari J., Jonas, Jost B., Jorgensen, Torben, Joshi, Pradeep, Jozwiak, Jacek, Juolevi, Anne, Jurak, Gregor, Juresa, Vesna, Kaaks, Rudolf, Kafatos, Anthony, Kajantie, Eero O., Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra, Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi, Karki, Khem B., Kasaeian, Amir, Katz, Joanne, Kauhanen, Jussi, Kaur, Prabhdeep, Kavousi, Maryam, Kazakbaeva, Gyulli, Keil, Ulrich, Boker, Lital Keinan, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka, Kelishadi, Roya, Kemper, Han C. G., Kengne, Andre P., Kerimkulova, Alina, Kersting, Mathilde, Key, Timothy, Khader, Yousef Saleh, Khalili, Davood, Khang, Young-Ho, Khateeb, Mohammad, Khaw, Kay-Tee, Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula, Kiechl, Stefan, Killewo, Japhet, Kim, Jeongseon, Kim, Yeon-Yong, Klumbiene, Jurate, Knoflach, Michael, Kolle, Elin, Kolsteren, Patrick, Korrovits, Paul, Koskinen, Seppo, Kouda, Katsuyasu, Kowlessur, Sudhir, Koziel, Slawomir, Kriemler, Susi, Kristensen, Peter Lund, Krokstad, Steinar, Kromhout, Daan, Kruger, Herculina S., Kubinova, Ruzena, Kuciene, Renata, Kuh, Diana, Kujala, Urho M., Kulaga, Zbigniew, Kumar, R. Krishna, Kurjata, Pawel, Kusuma, Yadlapalli S., Kuulasmaa, Kari, Kyobutungi, Catherine, Laatikainen, Tiina, Lachat, Carl, Lam, Tai Hing, Landrove, Orlando, Lanska, Vera, Lappas, Georg, Larijani, Bagher, Laugsand, Lars E., Laxmaiah, Avula, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, Le, Tuyen D., Leclercq, Catherine, Lee, Jeannette, Lee, Jeonghee, Lehtimaki, Terho, Leon-Munoz, Luz M., Levitt, Naomi S., Li, Yanping, Lilly, Christa L., Lim, Wei-Yen, Fernanda Lima-Costa, M., Lin, Hsien-Ho, Lin, Xu, Lind, Lars, Linneberg, Allan, Lissner, Lauren, Litwin, Mieczyslaw, Liu, Jing, Lorbeer, Roberto, Lotufo, Paulo A., Eugenio Lozano, Jose, Luksiene, Dalia, Lundqvist, Annamari, Lunet, Nuno, Lytsy, Per, Ma, Jun, Machado-Coelho, George L. L., Machi, Suka, Maggi, Stefania, Magliano, Dianna J., Magriplis, Emmanuella, Majer, Marjeta, Makdisse, Marcia, Malekzadeh, Reza, Malhotra, Rahul, Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna, Malyutina, Sofia, Manios, Yannis, Mann, Jim I., Manzato, Enzo, Margozzini, Paula, Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Marques, Larissa Pruner, Marrugat, Jaume, Martorell, Reynaldo, Mathiesen, Ellisiv B., Matijasevich, Alicia, Matsha, Tandi E., Mbanya, Jean Claude N., Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald, McFarlane, Shelly R., McGarvey, Stephen T., McLachlan, Stela, McLean, Rachael M., McLean, Scott B., McNulty, Breige A., Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia, Medzioniene, Jurate, Meirhaeghe, Aline, Meisinger, Christa, Menezes, Ana Maria B., Menon, Geetha R., Meshram, Indrapal I., Metspalu, Andres, Meyer, Haakon E., Mi, Jie, Mikkel, Kairit, Miller, Jody C., Minderico, Claudia S., Francisco, Juan, Jaime Miranda, J., Mirrakhimov, Erkin, Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta, Modesti, Pietro A., Mohamed, Mostafa K., Mohammad, Kazem, Mohammadifard, Noushin, Mohan, Viswanathan, Mohanna, Salim, Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd, Mollehave, Line T., Moller, Niels C., Molnar, Denes, Momenan, Amirabbas, Mondo, Charles K., Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K., Moon, Jin Soo, Moreira, Leila B., Morejon, Alain, Moreno, Luis A., Morgan, Karen, Moschonis, George, Mossakowska, Malgorzata, Mostafa, Aya, Mota, Jorge, Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel, Motta, Jorge, Msyamboza, Kelias P., Mu, Thet Thet, Muiesan, Maria L., Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina, Murphy, Neil, Mursu, Jaakko, Musil, Vera, Nabipour, Iraj, Nagel, Gabriele, Naidu, Balkish M., Nakamura, Harunobu, Namesna, Jana, Nang, Ei Ei K., Nangia, Vinay B., Narake, Sameer, Nauck, Matthias, Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva, Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba, Neal, William A., Nenko, Ilona, Neovius, Martin, Nervi, Flavio, Neuhauser, Hannelore K., Nguyen, Chung T., Nguyen, D. Nguyen, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Nguyen, Quang V., Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E., Niiranen, Teemu J., Ning, Guang, Ninomiya, Toshiharu, Nishtar, Sania, Noale, Marianna, Noboa, Oscar A., Noorbala, Ahmad Ali, Norat, Teresa, Noto, Davide, Al Nsour, Mohannad, O'Reilly, Dermot, Oda, Eiji, Oehlers, Glenn, Oh, Kyungwon, Ohara, Kumiko, Olinto, Maria Teresa A., Oliveira, Isabel O., Azahadi, Mohd, Onat, Altan, Ong, Sok King, Ono, Lariane M., Ordunez, Pedro, Ornelas, Rui, Osmond, Clive, Ostojic, Sergej M., Ostovar, Afshin, Otero, Johanna A., Overvad, Kim, Owusu-Dabo, Ellis, Paccaud, Fred Michel, Padez, Cristina, Pahomova, Elena, Pajak, Andrzej, Palli, Domenico, Palmieri, Luigi, Pan, Wen-Harn, Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra, Panza, Francesco, Papandreou, Dimitrios, Park, Soon-Woo, Parnell, Winsome R., Parsaeian, Mahboubeh, Patel, Nikhil D., Pecin, Ivan, Pednekar, Mangesh S., Peer, Nasheeta, Peeters, Petra H., Peixoto, Sergio Viana, Peltonen, Markku, Pereira, Alexandre C., Peters, Annette, Petersmann, Astrid, Petkeviciene, Janina, Peykari, Niloofar, Son Thai Pham, Son Thai Pham, Pigeot, Iris, Pikhart, Hynek, Pilav, Aida, Pilotto, Lorenza, Pitakaka, Freda, Piwonska, Aleksandra, Plans-Rubio, Pedro, Polasek, Ozren, Porta, Miquel, Portegies, Marileen L. P., Pourshams, Akram, Poustchi, Hossein, Pradeepa, Rajendra, Prashant, Mathur, Price, Jacqueline F., Puder, Jardena J., Puiu, Maria, Punab, Margus, Qasrawi, Radwan F., Qorbani, Mostafa, Tran Quoc Bao, Tran Quoc Bao, Radic, Ivana, Radisauskas, Ricardas, Rahman, Mahfuzar, Raitakari, Olli, Raj, Manu, Rao, Sudha Ramachandra, Ramachandran, Ambady, Ramos, Elisabete, Rampal, Lekhraj, Rampal, Sanjay, Reina, Daniel A. Rangel, Redon, Josep, Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M., Ribeiro, Robespierre, Riboli, Elio, Rigo, Fernando, de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke, Ritti-Dias, Raphael M., Robinson, Sian M., Robitaille, Cynthia, Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando, del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria, Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A., Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba, Romaguera, Dora, Ronkainen, Kimmo, Rosengren, Annika, Roy, Joel G. R., Rubinstein, Adolfo, Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca, Rutkowski, Marcin, Sabanayagam, Charumathi, Sachdev, Harshpal S., Saidi, Olfa, Sakarya, Sibel, Salanave, Benoit, Salazar Martinez, Eduardo, Salmeron, Diego, Salomaa, Veikko, Salonen, Jukka T., Salvetti, Massimo, Sanchez-Abanto, Jose, Sans, Susana, Santos, Diana A., Santos, Ina S., dos Santos, Renata Nunes, Santos, Rute, Saramies, Jouko L., Sardinha, Luis B., Sarganas, Giselle, Sarrafzadegan, Nizal, Saum, Kai-Uwe, Savva, Savvas, Scazufca, Marcia, Schargrodsky, Herman, Schipf, Sabine, Schmidt, Carsten O., Schoettker, Ben, Schultsz, Constance, Schutte, Aletta E., Sein, Aye Aye, Sen, Abhijit, Senbanjo, Idowu O., Sepanlou, Sadaf G., Sharma, Sanjib K., Shaw, Jonathan E., Shibuya, Kenji, Shin, Dong Wook, Shin, Youchan, Si-Ramlee, Khairil, Siantar, Rosalynn, Sibai, Abla M., Santos Silva, Diego Augusto, Simon, Mary, Simons, Judith, Simons, Leon A., Sjostrom, Michael, Skovbjerg, Sine, Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta, Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw, Smeeth, Liam, Smith, Margaret C., Snijder, Marieke B., So, Hung-Kwan, Sobngwi, Eugene, Soderberg, Stefan, Solfrizzi, Vincenzo, Sonestedt, Emily, Song, Yi, Sorensen, Thorkild I. A., Soric, Maroje, Jerome, Charles Sossa, Soumare, Aicha, Staessen, Jan A., Starc, Gregor, Stathopoulou, Maria G., Stavreski, Bill, Steene-Johannessen, Jostein, Stehle, Peter, Stein, Aryeh D., Stergiou, George S., Stessman, Jochanan, Stieber, Jutta, Stoeckl, Doris, Stocks, Tanja, Stokwiszewski, Jakub, Stronks, Karien, Strufaldi, Maria Wany, Sun, Chien-An, Sundstrom, Johan, Sung, Yn-Tz, Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul, Sy, Rody G., Tai, E. Shyong, Tammesoo, Mari-Liis, Tamosiunas, Abdonas, Tan, Eng Joo, Tang, Xun, Tanser, Frank, Tao, Yong, Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul, Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B., Tautu, Oana-Florentina, Taylor, Anne, Theobald, Holger, Theodoridis, Xenophon, Thijs, Lutgarde, Thuesen, Betina H., Tjonneland, Anne, Tolonen, Hanna K., Tolstrup, Janne S., Topbas, Murat, Topor-Madry, Roman, Jose Tormo, Maria, Torrent, Maties, Traissac, Pierre, Trichopoulos, Dimitrios, Trichopoulou, Antonia, Trinh, Oanh T. H., Trivedi, Atul, Tshepo, Lechaba, Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K., Tullu, Fikru, Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka, Tuomilehto, Jaakko, Turley, Maria L., Tynelius, Per, Tzourio, Christophe, Ueda, Peter, Ugel, Eunice E., Ulmer, Hanno, Uusitalo, Hannu M. T., Valdivia, Gonzalo, Valvi, Damaskini, van der Schouw, Yvonne T., Van Herck, Koen, Hoang Van Minh, Hoang Van Minh, van Rossem, Lenie, Van Schoor, Natasja M., van Valkengoed, Irene G. M., Vanderschueren, Dirk, Vanuzzo, Diego, Vatten, Lars, Vega, Tomas, Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo, Veronesi, Giovanni, Verschuren, W. M. Monique, Verstraeten, Roosmarijn, Victora, Cesar G., Viet, Lucie, Viikari-Juntura, Eira, Vineis, Paolo, Vioque, Jesus, Virtanen, Jyrki K., Visvikis-Siest, Sophie, Viswanathan, Bharathi, Vlasoff, Tiina, Vollenweider, Peter, Voutilainen, Sari, Wade, Alisha N., Wagner, Aline, Walton, Janette, Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan, Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan, Wanderley, Rildo S., Jr., Wang, Ming-Dong, Wang, Qian, Wang, Ya Xing, Wang, Ying-Wei, Wannamethee, S. Goya, Wareham, Nicholas, Wedderkopp, Niels, Weerasekera, Deepa, Whincup, Peter H., Widhalm, Kurt, Widyahening, Indah S., Wiecek, Andrzej, Wijga, Alet H., Wilks, Rainford J., Willeit, Johann, Willeit, Peter, Williams, Emmanuel A., Wilsgaard, Tom, Wojtyniak, Bogdan, Wong-McClure, Roy A., Wong, Justin Y. Y., Wong, Tien Yin, Woo, Jean, Woodward, Mark, Wu, Aleksander Giwercman, Wu, Frederick C., Wu, Shouling, Xu, Haiquan, Yan, Weili, Yang, Xiaoguang, Ye, Xingwang, Yiallouros, Panayiotis K., Yoshihara, Akihiro, Younger-Coleman, Novie O., Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi, Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali, Zambon, Sabina, Zampelas, Antonis, Zdrojewski, Tomasz, Zeng, Yi, Zhao, Dong, Zhao, Wenhua, Zheng, Wei, Zheng, Yingfeng, Zhu, Dan, Zhussupov, Baurzhan, Zimmermann, Esther, and Cisneros, Julio Zuniga. “Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper”. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47.3 (2018): 872–883i.

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