Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper

Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bixby H, Danaei G, Hajifathalian K, Taddei C, Carrillo-Larco RM, Djalalinia S, Khatibzadeh S, Lugero C, et al. (2018)
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47(3): 872–883i.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group-and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
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47
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3
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872–883i
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Zhou B, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 2018;47(3):872–883i.
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., et al. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(3), 872–883i. doi:10.1093/ije/dyy016
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., Carrillo-Larco, R. M., Djalalinia, S., Khatibzadeh, S., et al. (2018). Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 47, 872–883i.
Zhou, B., et al., 2018. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, 47(3), p 872–883i.
B. Zhou, et al., “Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, vol. 47, 2018, pp. 872–883i.
Zhou, B., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bixby, H., Danaei, G., Hajifathalian, K., Taddei, C., Carrillo-Larco, R.M., Djalalinia, S., Khatibzadeh, S., Lugero, C., Peykari, N., Zhang, W.Z., Bennett, J., Bilano, V., Stevens, G.A., Cowan, M.J., Riley, L.M., Chen, Z., Hambleton, I.R., Jackson, R.T., Kengne, A.P., Khang, Y.-H., Laxmaiah, A., Liu, J., Malekzadeh, R., Neuhauser, H.K., Soric, M., Starc, G., Sundstrom, J., Woodward, M., Ezzati, M., Abarca-Gomez, L., Abdeen, Z.A., Abu-Rmeileh, N.M., Acosta-Cazares, B., Adams, R.J., Aekplakorn, W., Afsana, K., Aguilar-Salinas, C.A., Agyemang, C., Ahmad, N.A., Ahmadvand, A., Ahrens, W., Ajlouni, K., Akhtaeva, N., Al-Raddadi, R., Ali, M.M., Ali, O., Alkerwi, A.'a, Aly, E., Amarapurkar, D.N., Amouyel, P., Amuzu, A., Andersen, L.B., Anderssen, S.A., Angquist, L.H., Anjana, R.M., Ansong, D., Aounallah-Skhiri, H., Araujo, J., Ariansen, I., Aris, T., Arlappa, N., Arveiler, D., Aryal, K.K., Aspelund, T., Assah, F.K., Assuncao, M.C.F., Avdicova, M., Azevedo, A., Azizi, F., Babu, B.V., Bahijri, S., Balakrishna, N., Bamoshmoosh, M., Banach, M., Bandosz, P., Banegas, J.R., Barbagallo, C.M., Barcelo, A., Barkat, A., Barros, A.J.D., Barros, M.V., Bata, I., Batieha, A.M., Batyrbek, A., Baur, L.A., Beaglehole, R., Ben Romdhane, H., Benet, M., Benson, L.S., Bernabe-Ortiz, A., Bernotiene, G., Bettiol, H., Bhagyalaxmi, A., Bharadwaj, S., Bhargava, S.K., Bi, Y., Bikbov, M., Bista, B., Bjerregaard, P., Bjertness, E., Bjertness, M.B., Bjorkelund, C., Blokstra, A., Bo, S., Bobak, M., Boeing, H., Boggia, J.G., Boissonnet, C.P., Bongard, V., Borchini, R., Bovet, P., Braeckman, L., Brajkovich, I., Branca, F., Breckenkamp, J., Brenner, H., Brewster, L.M., Bruno, G., Bueno-de-Mesquita, B.-de-M., Bugge, A., Burns, C., Bursztyn, M., Cabrera de Leon, A., Cacciottolo, J., Cai, H., Cameron, C., Can, G., Candido, A.P.C., Capuano, V., Cardoso, V.C., Carlsson, A.C., Carvalho, M.J., Casanueva, F.F., Casas, J.-P., Caserta, C.A., Chamukuttan, S., Chan, A.W., Chan, Q., 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Rampal, S., Reina, D.A.R., Redon, J., Reganit, P.F.M., Ribeiro, R., Riboli, E., Rigo, F., de Wit, T.F.R., Ritti-Dias, R.M., Robinson, S.M., Robitaille, C., Rodriguez-Artalejo, F., del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M., Rodriguez-Villamizar, L.A., Rojas-Martinez, R., Romaguera, D., Ronkainen, K., Rosengren, A., Roy, J.G.R., Rubinstein, A., Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, B., Rutkowski, M., Sabanayagam, C., Sachdev, H.S., Saidi, O., Sakarya, S., Salanave, B., Salazar Martinez, E., Salmeron, D., Salomaa, V., Salonen, J.T., Salvetti, M., Sanchez-Abanto, J., Sans, S., Santos, D.A., Santos, I.S., dos Santos, R.N., Santos, R., Saramies, J.L., Sardinha, L.B., Sarganas, G., Sarrafzadegan, N., Saum, K.-U., Savva, S., Scazufca, M., Schargrodsky, H., Schipf, S., Schmidt, C.O., Schoettker, B., Schultsz, C., Schutte, A.E., Sein, A.A., Sen, A., Senbanjo, I.O., Sepanlou, S.G., Sharma, S.K., Shaw, J.E., Shibuya, K., Shin, D.W., Shin, Y., Si-Ramlee, K., Siantar, R., Sibai, A.M., Santos Silva, D.A., Simon, M., Simons, 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M., Wu, A.G., Wu, F.C., Wu, S., Xu, H., Yan, W., Yang, X., Ye, X., Yiallouros, P.K., Yoshihara, A., Younger-Coleman, N.O., Yusoff, A.F., Zainuddin, A.A., Zambon, S., Zampelas, A., Zdrojewski, T., Zeng, Y., Zhao, D., Zhao, W., Zheng, W., Zheng, Y., Zhu, D., Zhussupov, B., Zimmermann, E., Cisneros, J.Z.: Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) Members are listed at the end of the paper. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY. 47, 872–883i (2018).
Zhou, Bin, Bentham, James, Di Cesare, Mariachiara, Bixby, Honor, Danaei, Goodarz, Hajifathalian, Kaveh, Taddei, Cristina, Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M., Djalalinia, Shirin, Khatibzadeh, Shahab, Lugero, Charles, Peykari, Niloofar, Zhang, Wan Zhu, Bennett, James, Bilano, Ver, Stevens, Gretchen A., Cowan, Melanie J., Riley, Leanne M., Chen, Zhengming, Hambleton, Ian R., Jackson, Rod T., Kengne, Andre Pascal, Khang, Young-Ho, Laxmaiah, Avula, Liu, Jing, Malekzadeh, Reza, Neuhauser, Hannelore K., Soric, Maroje, Starc, Gregor, Sundstrom, Johan, Woodward, Mark, Ezzati, Majid, Abarca-Gomez, Leandra, Abdeen, Ziad A., Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M., Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin, Adams, Robert J., Aekplakorn, Wichai, Afsana, Kaosar, Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A., Agyemang, Charles, Ahmad, Noor Ani, Ahmadvand, Alireza, Ahrens, Wolfgang, Ajlouni, Kamel, Akhtaeva, Nazgul, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa, Ali, Mohamed M., Ali, Osman, Alkerwi, Ala'a, Aly, Eman, Amarapurkar, Deepak N., Amouyel, Philippe, Amuzu, Antoinette, Andersen, Lars Bo, Anderssen, Sigmund A., Angquist, Lars H., Anjana, Ranjit Mohan, Ansong, Daniel, Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer, Araujo, Joana, Ariansen, Inger, Aris, Tahir, Arlappa, Nimmathota, Arveiler, Dominique, Aryal, Krishna K., Aspelund, Thor, Assah, Felix K., Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F., Avdicova, Maria, Azevedo, Ana, Azizi, Fereidoun, Babu, Bontha V., Bahijri, Suhad, Balakrishna, Nagalla, Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed, Banach, Maciej, Bandosz, Piotr, Banegas, Jose R., Barbagallo, Carlo M., Barcelo, Alberto, Barkat, Amina, Barros, Aluisio J. 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AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2010
Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses.
Aburto NJ, Hanson S, Gutierrez H, Hooper L, Elliott P, Cappuccio FP., BMJ 346(), 2013
PMID: 23558164
The effect of a reduction in alcohol consumption on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Roerecke M, Kaczorowski J, Tobe SW, Gmel G, Hasan OSM, Rehm J., Lancet Public Health 2(2), 2017
PMID: 29253389
Cigarette smoking and hypertension.
Virdis A, Giannarelli C, Neves MF, Taddei S, Ghiadoni L., Curr. Pharm. Des. 16(23), 2010
PMID: 20550499
Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cornelissen VA, Smart NA., J Am Heart Assoc 2(1), 2013
PMID: 23525435
Associations of Short-Term and Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Cai Y, Zhang B, Ke W, Feng B, Lin H, Xiao J, Zeng W, Li X, Tao J, Yang Z, Ma W, Liu T., Hypertension 68(1), 2016
PMID: 27245182
Bone lead levels and blood pressure endpoints: a meta-analysis.
Navas-Acien A, Schwartz BS, Rothenberg SJ, Hu H, Silbergeld EK, Guallar E., Epidemiology 19(3), 2008
PMID: 18414090
Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure.
Munzel T, Gori T, Babisch W, Basner M., Eur. Heart J. 35(13), 2014
PMID: 24616334
Effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
Gasperin D, Netuveli G, Dias-da-Costa JS, Pattussi MP., Cad Saude Publica 25(4), 2009
PMID: 19347197
National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants.
Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Gutierrez HR, Lu Y, Bahalim AN, Farzadfar F, Riley LM, Ezzati M; Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Body Mass Index), Stevens GA, Finucane MM, Cowan M, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, Singh G, Gutierrez HR, Lu Y, Bahalim AN, Farzadfar F, Riley LM, Ezzati M, Aamodt G, Abdeen Z, Abdella NA, Rahim HF, Addo J, Ali MM, Al-Nsour M, Ambady R, Aro P, Babu BV, Barbagallo CM, Barcelo A, Barros H, Bautista LE, Bjerregaard P, Bonora E, Bovet P, Breckenkamp J, Broda G, Brown IJ, Bursztyn M, de Leon AC, Cappuccio FP, Castetbon K, Chatterji S, Chen Z, Chen CJ, Chua L, Cifkova R, Cobiac LJ, Corsi AM, Craig CL, Dastgiri S, de Sereday MS, Dinc G, Dorsi E, Dragano N, Drewnowski A, Elliott P, Engeland A, Esteghamati A, Fan JG, Ferreccio G, Fornes NS, Fuchs FD, Giampaoli S, Gomez LF, Graff-Iversen S, Grant JF, Carvajal RG, Gulliford MC, Gupta R, Gupta PC, Gureje O, Heim N, Heinrich J, Hemmingsson T, Herrera VM, Ho SC, Holdsworth M, Hopman WM, Husseini A, Ikeda N, Jacobsen BK, Jafar TH, Janghorbani M, Jasienska G, Joffres MR, Jonas JB, Kalter-Leibovici O, Karalis I, Katz J, Keinan-Boker L, Kelly P, Khalilzadeh O, Khang YH, Kiechl S, Kiyohara Y, Krause MP, Kusuma YS, Langhammer A, Lee J, Levy-Marchal C, Li Y, Li Y, Lim S, Lin CC, Lind L, Lissner L, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Lorbeer R, Ma G, Ma S, Macia F, Magliano DJ, Makdisse M, Marques-Vidal P, Miccoli R, Miettola J, Miranda JJ, Mohamed MK, Mohan V, Mohanna S, Mokdad A, Morales DD, Muiesan LM, Nabipour I, Nangia V, Nemesure B, Neovius M, Nerhus KA, Nervi F, Neuhauser H, Nguyen M, Onal AE, Onat A, Orostegui M, Ouedraogo H, Panagiotakos DB, Panza F, Park Y, Pednekar MS, Peres MA, Perez C, Pichardo R, Phua HP, Pistelli F, Plans P, Prabhakaran D, Raitakari OT, Rampal S, Rampal L, Rasmussen F, Redon J, Revilla L, Reyes-Garcia V, Roaeid RB, Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Rosero-Bixby L, Sachdev HS, Sanchez JR, Sanisoglu SY, Schapochnik N, Sereday MS, Serra-Majem L, Shaw J, Shiri R, Shu XO, Silva E, Simons LA, Smith M, Solfrizzi V, Sonestedt E, Stattin P, Stein AD, Stergiou GS, Stessman J, Sudo A, Sundh V, Sundquist K, Sundstrom J, Tobias M, Torheim LE, Tur JA, Uhernik AI, Ukoli FA, Vanderpump MP, Varo JJ, Veierod MB, Velasquez-Melendez G, Verschuren M, Villalpando S, Vioque J, Ward M, Waspadji S, Willeit J, Woodward M, Xu L, Xu F, Yang G, Yeh LC, Yoon JS, You Q, Zheng W, Zhou M., Lancet 377(9765), 2011
PMID: 21295846
National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5·4 million participants.
Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, Singh GM, Paciorek CJ, Cowan MJ, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Lim SS, Riley LM, Ezzati M; Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Blood Pressure), Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Ezzati M, Abdeen Z, Agyemang C, Al Nsour M, Ali MM, Ambady R, Babu BV, Barbagallo CM, Barcelo A, Barreto S, Barros H, Bautista LE, Bjerregaard P, Bjorkelund C, Bo S, Bobak M, Bonora E, Botana MA, Bovet P, Breckenkamp J, Breteler MM, Broda G, Brown IJ, Bursztyn M, de Leon AC, Casiglia E, Castetbon K, Chatterji S, Chen Z, Chen CJ, Chua L, Cifkova R, Cobiac LJ, Cooper RS, Dankner RS, Dong GH, Elliott P, Erem C, Esteghamati A, Fan JG, Ferreccio C, Firmo JO, Fornes NS, Fuchs FD, Getz L, Giampaoli S, Gomez LF, Graff-Iversen S, Carvajal RG, Gulliford MC, Gupta P, Gureje O, Hansen TW, He J, Heinrich J, Hennis A, Herrera VM, Ho SC, Ibrahim MM, Ikeda N, Jafar TH, Joffres MR, Jonas JB, Kamadjeu RM, Karalis I, Kastarinen MJ, Katz J, Kelly P, Khalilzadeh O, Khang YH, Kiechl S, Kim KW, Kobayashi J, Kubinova R, Kusuma YS, Lam TH, Lawes CM, Le C, Lee J, Lin X, Lin HH, Lin CC, Liu X, Lorbeer R, Ma S, Ma G, Magliano DJ, Makdisse M, Mancia G, Mbanya JC, Miettola J, Minh HV, Miranda JJ, Mohamed MK, Mohan V, Mokdad AH, Morales DD, Morgan K, Muiesan LM, Muntoni S, Nabipour I, Nangia V, Neuhauser H, Ninomiya T, Olivieri O, Onal AE, Onat A, Orostegui M, Panagiotakos DB, Panza F, Pednekar MS, Perez C, Perez-Fernandez R, Pichardo R, Phua HP, Plans P, Poulter N, Raitakari OT, Rampal S, Rampal L, Redon J, Revilla L, Roaeid RB, Rojas-Martinez R, Sanisoglu SY, Sans S, Schelleman H, Schneider IJ, Silva DA, Silva E, Simons LA, Smith M, Soebardi S, Solfrizzi V, Stein AD, Stergiou GS, Stessman J, Suka M, Tambs K, Tesfaye F, Thorogood M, Tilvis RS, Trenkwalder P, Tuomilehto JO, Tzourio C, Vander Hoorn S, Vanderpump MP, Verschuren M, Vioque J, Waspadji S, Wilhelmsen L, Willeit J, Woodward M, Xavier AJ, Xu L, Yang G, Yeh LC, Yoon JS, You Q, Zhou M., Lancet 377(9765), 2011
PMID: 21295844
National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants.
Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Lin JK, Farzadfar F, Khang YH, Stevens GA, Rao M, Ali MK, Riley LM, Robinson CA, Ezzati M; Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Blood Glucose), Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Lin JK, Farzadfar F, Khang YH, Stevens GA, Rao M, Ali MK, Riley LM, Robinson CA, Ezzati M, Abdeen Z, Aekplakorn W, Afifi MM, Agabiti-Rosei E, Salinas CA, Alnsour M, Ambady R, Barbagallo CM, Barcelo A, Barros H, Bautista LE, Benetos A, Bjerregaard P, Bo S, Bovet P, Bursztyn M, Cabrera de Leon A, Castellano M, Castetbon K, Chaouki N, Chen CJ, Chua L, Cifkova R, Corsi AM, Delgado E, Doi Y, Esteghamati A, Fall CH, Fan JG, Ferreccio C, Fezeu L, Fuller EL, Giampaoli S, Gomez LF, Carvajal RG, Herman WH, Herrera VM, Ho S, Hussain A, Ikeda N, Jafar TH, Jonas JB, Kadiki OA, Karalis I, Katz J, Khalilzadeh O, Kiechl S, Kurjata P, Lee J, Lee J, Lim S, Lim TO, Lin CC, Lin X, Lin HH, Liu X, Lorbeer R, Ma S, Maggi S, Magliano DJ, McFarlane-Anderson N, Miettola J, Miranda JJ, Mohamed MK, Mohan V, Mokdad A, Morales DD, Nabipour I, Nakagami T, Nangia V, Neuhauser H, Noale M, Onat A, Orostegui M, Panagiotakos DB, Passos VM, Perez C, Pichardo R, Pin Phua H, Plans P, Qiao Q, Ramos LR, Rampal S, Rampal L, Redon J, Revilla L, Rosero-Bixby L, Sanisoglu SY, Scazufca M, Schaan BD, Sekuri C, Shera AS, Shi Z, Silva E, Simons LA, Soderberg S, Solfrizzi V, Soysal A, Stein AD, Stessman J, Vanderpump MP, Viet L, Vollenweider P, Wang N, Wang YX, Waspadji S, Willeit J, Woodward M, Xu L, Yang X, Yoon JS, Yu Z, Zhang J, Zhang L., Lancet 378(9785), 2011
PMID: 21705069
National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants.
Farzadfar F, Finucane MM, Danaei G, Pelizzari PM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Lin JK, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Ezzati M; Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Cholesterol), Farzadfar F, Finucane MM, Danaei G, Pelizzari PM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Lin JK, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Ezzati M, Salinas CA, Al Nsour M, Ali MM, Al-Nuaim AR, Ambady R, Antonio M, Azizi F, Barbagallo CM, Barbieri M, Barros H, Bautista LE, Bjerregaard P, Bjorkelund C, Bovet P, Brekenkamp J, Bursztyn M, de Leon AC, Campos H, Capuano V, Castetbon K, Chang CJ, Chen CJ, Choi JS, Chua L, Cifkova R, Costanza MC, Eggertsen RW, Esteghamati A, Fan JG, Ferreccio C, Florez HJ, Fornes NS, Fowkes FG, Franceschini G, Frisk F, Giampaoli S, Gomez LF, Gomez-Zumaquero JM, Graff -Iversen S, Carvajal RG, Gupta R, Hansen TW, Hata J, He J, Herrera VM, Ho SC, Frisman GH, Ikeda N, Jaddou HY, Jafar TH, Janghorbani M, Joffres MR, Jonas JB, Kadiki OA, Karalis I, Kastarinen MJ, Katz J, Khalilzadeh O, Khang YH, Kiechl S, Kobayashi J, Kubinova R, Lam TH, Lawes CM, Lee J, Lim S, Lin HH, Lin X, Lin CC, Ma S, MacLean DR, Magliano DJ, Mannami T, Marques-Vidal P, Miettola J, Miquel JF, Miranda JJ, Mohamed MK, Mohan V, Mokdad A, Mollentze WF, Morales DD, Muiesan LM, Nabipour I, Nangia V, Nerhus KA, Neuhauser H, Oh SW, Ohkubo T, Onat A, Orostegui M, Pan WH, Panagiotakos DB, Panza F, Passos VM, Perez C, Pichardo R, Phua HP, Polakowska M, Rafiei M, Ramos LR, Reddy KK, Redon J, Revilla L, Roaeid RB, Ronkainen K, Roth GA, Sanisoglu SY, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Schooling CM, Schwarz B, Silva E, Simons LA, Solfrizzi V, Stein AD, Stessman J, Suka M, Swai AB, Tai ES, Thomas GN, Thorogood M, Tuomilehto JO, Unwin N, Vander Hoorn S, Vanderpump MP, Volpato S, Welin LX, Willeit J, Woodward M, Xu L, Yamamoto A, Yang X, Yeh LC, Yoon JS, You Q, Zhang J., Lancet 377(9765), 2011
PMID: 21295847
A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models
Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H.., 2013
Can a decline in the population means of cardiovascular risk factors reduce the number of people at risk?
Laaser U, Breckenkamp J, Ullrich A, Hoffmann B., J Epidemiol Community Health 55(3), 2001
PMID: 11160172
Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the health examination surveys, 1960 to 1991.
Burt VL, Cutler JA, Higgins M, Horan MJ, Labarthe D, Whelton P, Brown C, Roccella EJ., Hypertension 26(1), 1995
PMID: 7607734
Birth cohort evidence of population influences on blood pressure in the United States, 1887-1994.
Goff DC, Howard G, Russell GB, Labarthe DR., Ann Epidemiol 11(4), 2001
PMID: 11306346
Blood pressure levels and obesity trends in hypertensive and normotensive Finnish population from 1982 to 1997.
Kastarinen MJ, Nissinen AM, Vartiainen EA, Jousilahti PJ, Korhonen HJ, Puska PM, Tuomilehto ., J. Hypertens. 18(3), 2000
PMID: 10726710
Temporal shifts in cardiovascular risk factor distribution.
Long GH, Simmons RK, Norberg M, Wennberg P, Lindahl B, Rolandsson O, Griffin SJ, Weinehall L., Am J Prev Med 46(2), 2014
PMID: 24439344
Longitudinal and Secular Trends in Blood Pressure Among Women and Men in Birth Cohorts Born Between 1905 and 1977: The Tromso Study 1979 to 2008.
Hopstock LA, Bonaa KH, Eggen AE, Grimsgaard S, Jacobsen BK, Lochen ML, Mathiesen EB, Njolstad I, Wilsgaard T., Hypertension 66(3), 2015
PMID: 26195482
Blood pressure changes during 22-year of follow-up in large general population - the HUNT Study, Norway.
Holmen J, Holmen TL, Tverdal A, Holmen OL, Sund ER, Midthjell K., BMC Cardiovasc Disord 16(), 2016
PMID: 27176717
Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China.
Du S, Neiman A, Batis C, Wang H, Zhang B, Zhang J, Popkin BM., Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 99(2), 2013
PMID: 24257724
Sodium in the Finnish diet: 20-year trends in urinary sodium excretion among the adult population.
Laatikainen T, Pietinen P, Valsta L, Sundvall J, Reinivuo H, Tuomilehto J., Eur J Clin Nutr 60(8), 2006
PMID: 16482074
Global, regional and national sodium intakes in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis of 24 h urinary sodium excretion and dietary surveys worldwide.
Powles J, Fahimi S, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Ezzati M, Engell RE, Lim SS, Danaei G, Mozaffarian D; Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE), Mozaffarian D, Ezzati M, Fahimi S, Khatibzadeh S, Micha R, Powles J, Shi P, Byers TE, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner S, Elmadfa I, Kalantarian S, Rao M, Wirojratana P, Lim SS, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Elliott P, Brown I, Britton J, Fogarty A, Land MA, Lewis S, McKeever T, Neal B, Ocke MC, Webster J, Abbott PA, Abdollahi M, Gilardon EO, Ahsan H, Al Nsour MA, Al-Hooti SN, Arambepola C, Barennes H, Barquera S, Baylin A, Becker W, Bjerregaard P, Science M, Bourne LT, Calleja N, Capanzana MV, Castetbon K, Chang HY, Chen Y, Cowan MJ, De Henauw S, Ding EL, Duante CA, Duran P, Elmadfa I, Barbieri HE, Farzadfar F, Fernando DN, Hadziomeragic AF, Fisberg RM, Forsyth S, Garriguet D, Gaspoz JM, Gauci D, Ginnela BN, Guessous I, Gulliford MC, Hadden W, Haerpfer C, Hoffman DJ, Houshiar-Rad A, Huybrechts I, Hwalla NC, Ibrahim HM, Inoue M, Jackson MD, Johansson L, Keinan-Boker L, Kim CI, Koksal E, Lee HJ, Li Y, Lipoeto NI, Ma G, Mangialavori GL, Matsumura Y, McGarvey ST, Fen CM, Mensink GB, Monge-Rojas RA, Musaiger AO, Nagalla B, Naska A, Ocke MC, Oltarzewski M, Orfanos P, Ovaskainen ML, Pan WH, Panagiotakos DB, Pekcan GA, Petrova S, Piaseu N, Pitsavos C, Posada LG, Riley LM, Sanchez-Romero LM, Sharma S, Sibai AM, Selamat RB, Sichieri R, Simmala C, Steingrimsdottir L, Swan G, Sygnowska EH, Szponar L, Tapanainen H, Templeton R, Thanopoulou A, Thorgeirsdottir H, Thorsdottir I, Trichopoulou A, Tsugane S, Turrini A, Vaask S, van Oosterhout C, Veerman JL, Verena N, Waskiewicz A, Zaghloul S, Zajkas G., BMJ Open 3(12), 2013
PMID: 24366578
Sodium and potassium intake patterns and trends in South Korea.
Lee HS, Duffey KJ, Popkin BM., J Hum Hypertens 27(5), 2012
PMID: 23151751
Mean population salt consumption in India: a systematic review.
Johnson C, Praveen D, Pope A, Raj TS, Pillai RN, Land MA, Neal B., J. Hypertens. 35(1), 2017
PMID: 27755388
[Estimated sodium intake for the Brazilian population, 2008-2009].
Sarno F, Claro RM, Levy RB, Bandoni DH, Monteiro CA., Rev Saude Publica 47(3), 2013
PMID: 24346570
Global trends and projections for tobacco use, 1990-2025: an analysis of smoking indicators from the WHO Comprehensive Information Systems for Tobacco Control.
Bilano V, Gilmour S, Moffiet T, d'Espaignet ET, Stevens GA, Commar A, Tuyl F, Hudson I, Shibuya K., Lancet 385(9972), 2015
PMID: 25784347

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2014
Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide.
Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Mozaffarian D; Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE), Ezzati M, Fahimi S, Powles J, Byers TE, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner S, Elmadfa I, Rao M, Wirojratana P, Lim SS, Abbott PA, Abdollahi M, Gilardon EO, Ahsan H, Al Nsour MA, Al-Hooti SN, Arambepola C, Barennes H, Barquera S, Baylin A, Becker W, Bjerregaard P, Bourne LT, Calleja N, Capanzana MV, Castetbon K, Chang HY, Chen Y, Cowan MJ, De Henauw S, Ding EL, Duante CA, Duran P, Elmadfa I, Barbieri HE, Farzadfar F, Fernando DN, Filipovic Hadziomeragic A, Fisberg RM, Forsyth S, Garriguet D, Gaspoz JM, Gauci D, Ginnela BN, Guessous I, Gulliford MC, Hadden W, Haerpfer C, Hoffman DJ, Houshiar-Rad A, Huybrechts I, Hwalla NC, Ibrahim HM, Inoue M, Jackson MD, Johansson L, Keinan-Boker L, Kim CI, Koksal E, Lee HJ, Li Y, Lipoeto NI, Ma G, Mangialavori GL, Matsumura Y, McGarvey ST, Fen CM, Mensink GB, Monge-Rojas RA, Musaiger AO, Nagalla B, Naska A, Ocke MC, Oltarzewski M, Orfanos P, Ovaskainen ML, Pan WH, Panagiotakos DB, Pekcan GA, Petrova S, Piaseu N, Pitsavos C, Posada LG, Riley LM, Sanchez-Romero LM, Selamat RB, Sharma S, Sibai AM, Sichieri R, Simmala C, Steingrimsdottir L, Swan G, Sygnowska EH, Szponar L, Tapanainen H, Templeton R, Thanopoulou A, Thorgeirsdottir H, Thorsdottir I, Trichopoulou A, Tsugane S, Turrini A, Vaask S, van Oosterhout C, Veerman JL, Verena N, Waskiewicz A, Zaghloul S, Zajkas G., BMJ Open 5(9), 2015
PMID: 26408285
Seasonal variation in blood pressure and its relationship with outdoor temperature in 10 diverse regions of China: the China Kadoorie Biobank.
Lewington S, Li L, Sherliker P, Guo Y, Millwood I, Bian Z, Whitlock G, Yang L, Collins R, Chen J, Wu X, Wang S, Hu Y, Jiang L, Yang L, Lacey B, Peto R, Chen Z; China Kadoorie Biobank study collaboration, Li L, Chen J, Wu F, Collins R, Peto R, Chen Z, Chen Z, Lancaster G, Yang X, Williams A, Smith M, Yang L, Chang YM, Guo Y, Zhao G, Bian Z, Wu L, Hou C, Pang Z, Wang S, Zhang Y, Zhang K, Liu S, Zhao Z, Liu S, Pang Z, Feng W, Wu S, Yang L, Han H, He H, Pan X, Wang S, Wang H, Hao X, Chen C, Lin S, Hu X, Zhou M, Wu M, Wang Y, Hu Y, Ma L, Zhou R, Xu G, Dong B, Chen N, Huang Y, Li M, Meng J, Gan Z, Xu J, Liu Y, Wu X, Gao Y, Zhang N, Luo G, Que X, Chen X, Ge P, He J, Ren X, Zhang H, Mao E, Li G, Li Z, He J, Liu G, Zhu B, Zhou G, Feng S, Gao Y, He T, Jiang L, Qin J, Sun H, Liu L, Yu M, Chen Y, Hu Z, Hu J, Qian Y, Wu Z, Chen L, Liu W, Li G, Liu H, Xiong Y, Tan Z, Xie X, Peng Y., J. Hypertens. 30(7), 2012
PMID: 22688260
Influence of room heating on ambulatory blood pressure in winter: a randomised controlled study.
Saeki K, Obayashi K, Iwamoto J, Tanaka Y, Tanaka N, Takata S, Kubo H, Okamoto N, Tomioka K, Nezu S, Kurumatani N., J Epidemiol Community Health 67(6), 2013
PMID: 23447647
Environmental ambient temperature and blood pressure in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Wang Q, Li C, Guo Y, Barnett AG, Tong S, Phung D, Chu C, Dear K, Wang X, Huang C., Sci. Total Environ. 575(), 2016
PMID: 27750133
Discordant secular trends in elevated blood pressure and obesity in children and adolescents in a rapidly developing country.
Chiolero A, Paradis G, Madeleine G, Hanley JA, Paccaud F, Bovet P., Circulation 119(4), 2009
PMID: 19153270
Trends in Elevated Blood Pressure Among US Children and Adolescents: 1999-2012.
Xi B, Zhang T, Zhang M, Liu F, Zong X, Zhao M, Wang Y., Am. J. Hypertens. 29(2), 2015
PMID: 26158854
The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee., JAMA 289(19), 2003
PMID: 12748199
Cost-effectiveness of hypertension therapy according to 2014 guidelines.
Moran AE, Odden MC, Thanataveerat A, Tzong KY, Rasmussen PW, Guzman D, Williams L, Bibbins-Domingo K, Coxson PG, Goldman L., N. Engl. J. Med. 372(5), 2015
PMID: 25629742

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2011
Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in Germany 1998 and 2008-11.
Neuhauser HK, Adler C, Rosario AS, Diederichs C, Ellert U., J Hum Hypertens 29(4), 2014
PMID: 25273858
Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and the risk of mortality among middle-aged Lithuanian urban population in 1983-2009.
Reklaitiene R, Tamosiunas A, Virviciute D, Baceviciene M, Luksiene D., BMC Cardiovasc Disord 12(), 2012
PMID: 22937997
Changes in the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Canada over the past two decades.
McAlister FA, Wilkins K, Joffres M, Leenen FH, Fodor G, Gee M, Tremblay MS, Walker R, Johansen H, Campbell N., CMAJ 183(9), 2011
PMID: 21576297
Longitudinal trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in the Czech population between 1985 and 2007/8. Czech MONICA and Czech post-MONICA.
Cifkova R, Skodova Z, Bruthans J, Adamkova V, Jozifova M, Galovcova M, Wohlfahrt P, Krajcoviechova A, Poledne R, Stavek P, Lanska V., Atherosclerosis 211(2), 2010
PMID: 20471016
Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension in Finland during 1982-2007.
Kastarinen M, Antikainen R, Peltonen M, Laatikainen T, Barengo NC, Jula A, Salomaa V, Jousilahti P, Nissinen A, Vartiainen E, Tuomilehto J., J. Hypertens. 27(8), 2009
PMID: 19412128
Long term trends in control of hypertension in the Northern Sweden MONICA study 1986-2009.
Torma E, Carlberg B, Eriksson M, Jansson JH, Eliasson M., BMC Public Health 15(), 2015
PMID: 26404853
[Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of arterial hypertension between 1986 and 1996: the MONICA-Catalonia study]
Sans S, Paluzie G, Balana L, Puig T, Balaguer-Vintro I., Med Clin (Barc) 117(7), 2001
PMID: 11562326
Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in urban communities in Chile.
Fasce E, Campos I, Ibanez P, Flores M, Zarate H, Roman O, Fasce F., J. Hypertens. 25(9), 2007
PMID: 17762644
Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012.
Sengul S, Akpolat T, Erdem Y, Derici U, Arici M, Sindel S, Karatan O, Turgan C, Hasanoglu E, Caglar S, Erturk S; Turkish Society of Hypertension and Renal Diseases., J. Hypertens. 34(6), 2016
PMID: 26991534
Hypertension prevalence and control in Romania at a seven-year interval. Comparison of SEPHAR I and II surveys.
Dorobantu M, Darabont R, Ghiorghe S, Arsenescu-Georgescu C, Macarie C, Mitu F, Lighezan D, Musetescu R, Pop C, Ardeleanu E, Craiu E, Tautu OF., J. Hypertens. 32(1), 2014
PMID: 24141175
Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Chinese adults 1991-2009.
Xi B, Liang Y, Reilly KH, Wang Q, Hu Y, Tang W., Int. J. Cardiol. 158(2), 2012
PMID: 22626836
Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural and urban communities in high-, middle-, and low-income countries.
Chow CK, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Islam S, Gupta R, Avezum A, Bahonar A, Chifamba J, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Kazmi K, Lanas F, Wei L, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Fanghong L, Ismail NH, Puoane T, Rosengren A, Szuba A, Temizhan A, Wielgosz A, Yusuf R, Yusufali A, McKee M, Liu L, Mony P, Yusuf S; PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology) Study investigators, Rangarajan S, Teo KK, Chow CK, Islam S, Zhang M, Kabali C, Dehghan M, Xiong J, Mente A, DeJesus J, Mackie P, Madhavan M, Corsi D, Farago L, Michael J, Kay I, Zafar S, Williams D, Solano R, Solano N, Farago M, Rimac J, Trottier S, ElSheikh W, Mustaha M, Kaszyca J, Hrnic R, Yusuf S, McQueen M, Hall K, Keys J, Wang X, Keneth J, Diaz R, Orlandini A, Bahit C, Linetsky B, Toscanelli S, Casaccia G, Cuneo JM, Rahman O, Yusuf R, Azad AK, Rabbani KA, Cherry HM, Mannan A, Hassan I, Talukdar AT, Tooheen RB, Khan MU, Avezum A, Oliveira GB, Marcilio CS, Mattos AC, Teo K, Yusuf S, Dejesus J, Zafar S, Williams D, Rimac J, Dagenais G, Poirier P, Turbide G, Auger D, De Bluts A, Proulx MC, Cayer M, Bonneville N, Lear S, Chockalingam A, Gasevic D, Gyawali S, Hage-Moussa S, Mah G, MacLeod M, Vukmirovich I, Wielgosz A, Fodor G, Pipe A, Moroz S, Muthuri S, Lanas F, Seron P, Martinez S, Lisheng L, Wei L, Chunming C, Xingyu W, Wenhua Z, Jian B, Xiaohong C, Tao C, Hui C, Xiaoru C, Qing D, Xinye H, Bo H, Xuan J, Jian L, Juan L, Xu L, Bing R, Yi S, Wei W, Yang W, Jun Y, Yi Z, Hongye Z, Xiuwen Z, Manlu Z, Fanghong L, Jianfang W, Yindong L, Yan H, Liangqing Z, Baoxia G, Xiaoyang L, Shiying Z, Rongwen B, Xiuzhen T, Dong L, Di C, Jianguo W, Yize X, Tianlu L, Peng Z, Changlin D, Ning L, Xiaolan M, Yuqing Y, Rensheng L, Minfan F, Jing H, Yu L, Xiaojie X, Qiang Z, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Garcia R, Arguello JF, Duenas R, Silva S, Pradilla LP, Ramirez F, Molina DI, Cure-Cure C, Perez M, Hernandez E, Arcos E, Fernandez S, Narvaez C, Paez J, Sotomayor A, Garcia H, Sanchez G, David T, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Rico A, Vaz M, Bharathi AV, Swaminathan S, Mony P, Kurpad K, Jayachitra KG, Kumar N, Mohan V, Deepa M, Parthiban K, Anitha M, Hemavathy S, Rahulashankiruthiyayan T, Anitha D, Sridevi K, Gupta R, Panwar RB, Mohan I, Rastogi P, Rastogi S, Bhargava R, Kumar R, Thakur JS, Patro B, Mahajan R, Chaudary P, Kutty V, Vijayakumar K, Ajayan K, Rajasree G, Renjini AR, Deepu A, Sandhya B, Asha S, Soumya HS, Kelishadi R, Bahonar A, Mohammadifard N, Heidari H, Yusoff K, Nawawi HM, Ismail TS, Ramli AS, Razali R, Khan NA, Nasir NM, Ahmad R, Winn T, Majid FA, Noorhassim I, Hasni MJ, Azmi MT, Zaleha MI, Hazdi KY, Rizam AR, Sazman W, Azman A, Iqbal R, Shahid M, Khawaja R, Kazmi K, Zatonski W, Andrzejak R, Szuba A, Zatonska K, Ilow R, Ferus M, Regulska-Ilow B, Rozanska D, Wolynie M, Kruger A, Voster HH, Schutte AE, Wentzel-Viljoen E, Eloff FC, de Ridder H, Moss H, Potgieter J, Roux AA, Watson M, de Wet G, Olckers A, Jerling JC, Pieters M, Hoekstra T, Puoane T, Igumbor E, Tsolekile L, Sanders D, Naidoo P, Steyn N, Peer N, Mayosi B, Rayner B, Lambert V, Levitt N, Kolbe-Alexander T, Ntyintyane L, Hughes G, Swart R, Fourie J, Muzigaba M, Xapa S, Gobile N, Ndayi K, Jwili B, Ndibaza K, Egbujie B, de Lima T, Petersen M, Govender S, Rosengren A, Bostrom K, Lindblad U, Langkilde P, Gustavsson A, Andreasson M, Snallman M, Wirdemann L, Pettersson K, Moberg E, Oguz A, Akalin AA, Calik KB, Imeryuz N, Temizhan A, Alphan E, Gunes E, Sur H, Karsidag K, Gulec S, Altuntas Y, Yusufali AM, Almahmeed W, Swidan H, Darwish EA, Hashemi AR, Al-Khaja N, Muscat-Baron JM, Ahmed SH, Mamdouh TM, Darwish WM, Abdelmotagali MH, Awed SA, Movahedi GA, Hussain F, Al Shaibani H, Gharabou RI, Youssef DF, Nawati AZ, Salah ZA, Abdalla RF, Al Shuwaihi SM, Al Omairi MA, Cadigal OD, Alejandrino RS, Chifamba J, Gwaunza L, Terera G, Mahachi C, Mrambiwa P, Machiweni T, Mapanga R., JAMA 310(9), 2013
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Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries.
Mills KT, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, Reed JE, Kearney PM, Reynolds K, Chen J, He J., Circulation 134(6), 2016
PMID: 27502908

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