Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems

Sriskandarajah V, Neuner F, Catani C (2015)
BMC Psychiatry 15(1): 203.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Abstract / Bemerkung
Background: Research in war-torn regions has mainly focused on the impact of traumatic experiences on individual mental health and has found high prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in affected adults and children. However, little is known about the possible protective factors occurring in children's environments in the aftermath of mass trauma. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study with families in Northern Sri Lanka, a region that had been shattered by a long-lasting civil war and devastated by the Asian tsunami in 2004. Methods: Schoolchildren aged 7 to 11 (N = 359) were interviewed on the basis of standardized measures to assess children's exposure to traumatic events, mental health symptoms, and parenting behavior as perceived by children. All interviews were carried out by local senior counselors. Results: Linear regression analyses identified exposure to mass trauma and family violence as significant risk factors of child mental health whereas parental care emerged as a significant factor associated with fewer behavior problems. In addition, parental care significantly moderated the relationship between mass trauma and internalizing behavior problems. Conclusions: Family characteristics seem to be strongly associated with children's mental health even in regions severely affected by mass trauma. This finding is particularly relevant for the development of targeted psychosocial interventions for children and families living in war torn areas.
BMC Psychiatry
Open-Access-Publikationskosten wurden durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft und die Universität Bielefeld gefördert.
Page URI


Sriskandarajah V, Neuner F, Catani C. Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15(1): 203.
Sriskandarajah, V., Neuner, F., & Catani, C. (2015). Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1), 203. doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0583-x
Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan, Neuner, Frank, and Catani, Claudia. 2015. “Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems”. BMC Psychiatry 15 (1): 203.
Sriskandarajah, V., Neuner, F., and Catani, C. (2015). Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry 15:203.
Sriskandarajah, V., Neuner, F., & Catani, C., 2015. Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry, 15(1): 203.
V. Sriskandarajah, F. Neuner, and C. Catani, “Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems”, BMC Psychiatry, vol. 15, 2015, : 203.
Sriskandarajah, V., Neuner, F., Catani, C.: Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems. BMC Psychiatry. 15, : 203 (2015).
Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan, Neuner, Frank, and Catani, Claudia. “Parental care protects traumatized Sri Lankan children from internalizing behavior problems”. BMC Psychiatry 15.1 (2015): 203.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Copyright Statement:
Dieses Objekt ist durch das Urheberrecht und/oder verwandte Schutzrechte geschützt. [...]
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
MD5 Prüfsumme

5 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Psychosocial problems in traumatized refugee families: overview of risks and some recommendations for support services.
Fegert JM, Diehl C, Leyendecker B, Hahlweg K, Prayon-Blum V, Scientific Advisory Council of the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs, Senior, Citizens, Women and Youth., Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 12(), 2018
PMID: 29344083
Communication With Children and Families About Disaster: Reviewing Multi-disciplinary Literature 2015-2017.
Wisner B, Paton D, Alisic E, Eastwood O, Shreve C, Fordham M., Curr Psychiatry Rep 20(9), 2018
PMID: 30094701
Psychosocial wellbeing and physical health among Tamil schoolchildren in northern Sri Lanka.
Hamilton A, Foster C, Richards J, Surenthirakumaran R., Confl Health 10(), 2016
PMID: 27385976
Mother-child interactions and young child behavior during procedural conscious sedation.
Miranda-Remijo D, Orsini MR, Corrêa-Faria P, Costa LR., BMC Pediatr 16(1), 2016
PMID: 27914480

81 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.


The psychosocial aspects of children exposed to war: practice and policy initiatives.
Barenbaum J, Ruchkin V, Schwab-Stone M., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45(1), 2004
PMID: 14959802
Trauma, proximity, and developmental psychopathology: the effects of war and terrorism on children.
Pine DS, Costello J, Masten A., Neuropsychopharmacology 30(10), 2005
PMID: 16012537
Comorbidity of PTSD and depression among refugee children during war conflict.
Thabet AA, Abed Y, Vostanis P., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45(3), 2004
PMID: 15055372
Post traumatic stress, context, and the lingering effects of the Hurricane Katrina disaster among ethnic minority youth.
Weems CF, Taylor LK, Cannon MF, Marino RC, Romano DM, Scott BG, Perry AM, Triplett V., J Abnorm Child Psychol 38(1), 2010
PMID: 19707864
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among children in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand.
Thienkrua W, Cardozo BL, Chakkraband ML, Guadamuz TE, Pengjuntr W, Tantipiwatanaskul P, Sakornsatian S, Ekassawin S, Panyayong B, Varangrat A, Tappero JW, Schreiber M, van Griensven F; Thailand Post-Tsunami Mental Health Study Group., JAMA 296(5), 2006
PMID: 16882961
Serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 years postdisaster.
McLaughlin KA, Fairbank JA, Gruber MJ, Jones RT, Lakoma MD, Pfefferbaum B, Sampson NA, Kessler RC., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48(11), 2009
PMID: 19797983
Psychological trauma and evidence for enhanced vulnerability for posttraumatic stress disorder through previous trauma among West Nile refugees.
Neuner F, Schauer M, Karunakara U, Klaschik C, Robert C, Elbert T., BMC Psychiatry 4(), 2004
PMID: 15504233

Bronfenbrenner U., 1979
Children exposed to war/terrorism.
Shaw JA., Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 6(4), 2003
PMID: 14719636
A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders.
Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, Piacentini JC., Biol. Psychiatry 46(11), 1999
PMID: 10599482
Cumulative effects of exposure to violence on posttraumatic stress in Palestinian and Israeli youth.
Dubow EF, Boxer P, Huesmann LR, Landau S, Dvir S, Shikaki K, Ginges J., J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41(6), 2012
PMID: 22540411
Beyond individual war trauma: domestic violence against children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.
Catani C, Schauer E, Neuner F., J Marital Fam Ther 34(2), 2008
PMID: 18412824
Tsunami, war, and cumulative risk in the lives of Sri Lankan schoolchildren.
Catani C, Gewirtz AH, Wieling E, Schauer E, Elbert T, Neuner F., Child Dev 81(4), 2010
PMID: 20636689
Mental health and childhood adversities: a longitudinal study in Kabul, Afghanistan.
Panter-Brick C, Goodman A, Tol W, Eggerman M., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50(4), 2011
PMID: 21421175
Disasters and youth: a meta-analytic examination of posttraumatic stress.
Furr JM, Comer JS, Edmunds JM, Kendall PC., J Consult Clin Psychol 78(6), 2010
PMID: 21114340
Genetic and environmental influences on trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a twin study.
Stein MB, Jang KL, Taylor S, Vernon PA, Livesley WJ., Am J Psychiatry 159(10), 2002
PMID: 12359672
The relevance of epigenetics to PTSD: implications for the DSM-V.
Yehuda R, Bierer LM., J Trauma Stress 22(5), 2009
PMID: 19813242
Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers.
Klasen F, Oettingen G, Daniels J, Post M, Hoyer C, Adam H., Child Dev 81(4), 2010
PMID: 20636684
Parenting practices as potential mechanisms for child adjustment following mass trauma.
Gewirtz A, Forgatch M, Wieling E., J Marital Fam Ther 34(2), 2008
PMID: 18412825
A parental bonding instrument
Parker G, Tupling H, Brown LB., 1979

Bowlby J., 1969

Hinde RA., 1974
Infant-mother attachment and social development: Socialisation as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals
Ainsworth MDS, Bell SM, Stayton DF., 1974
Parental attachment and romantic relationships: associations with emotional disturbance during late adolescence
Overbeek G, Vollebergh W, Engels RCME, Meeus W., 2003
Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.
Werner EE., Dev. Psychopathol. 24(2), 2012
PMID: 22559130
Competence in the context of adversity: pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence.
Masten AS, Hubbard JJ, Gest SD, Tellegen A, Garmezy N, Ramirez M., Dev. Psychopathol. 11(1), 1999
PMID: 10208360
Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.
Betancourt TS, Borisova II, Williams TP, Brennan RT, Whitfield TH, de la Soudiere M, Williamson J, Gilman SE., Child Dev 81(4), 2010
PMID: 20636683
Resiliency factors predicting psychological adjustment after political violence among Palestinian children
Punamaki R-L, Qouta S, El-Sarraj E., 2001
Accountability and the Sri Lankan Civil War
Ratner SR., 2012




Psychiatric interviewing across cultures: some problems and prospects
Figueiredo JM, Lemkau PV., 1980
Cross-cultural normative assessment: translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments
Geisinger KF., 1994
Trauma-related impairment in children--a survey in Sri Lankan provinces affected by armed conflict.
Elbert T, Schauer M, Schauer E, Huschka B, Hirth M, Neuner F., Child Abuse Negl 33(4), 2009
PMID: 19324413
Psychometric properties of the life events checklist.
Gray MJ, Litz BT, Hsu JL, Lombardo TW., Assessment 11(4), 2004
PMID: 15486169

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, Rodriguez N., 1999
The University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index.
Steinberg AM, Brymer MJ, Decker KB, Pynoos RS., Curr Psychiatry Rep 6(2), 2004
PMID: 15038911
The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC., J Clin Psychiatry 59 Suppl 20(), 1998
PMID: 9881538
Reliability and validity of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID).
Sheehan DV, Sheehan KH, Shytle RD, Janavs J, Bannon Y, Rogers JE, Milo KM, Stock SL, Wilkinson B., J Clin Psychiatry 71(3), 2010
PMID: 20331933
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note.
Goodman R., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5), 1997
PMID: 9255702
The strengths and difficulties questionnaire overseas: evaluations and applications of the SDQ beyond Europe
Woerner W, Fleitlich-Bilyk B, Martinussen R, Fletcher J, Cucchiaro G, Dalgalarrondo P, Lui M, Tannock R., 2004
Validity and reliability of Tamil version of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire self-report.
Lukumar P, Wijewardana K, Hermansson J, Lindmark G., Ceylon Med J 53(2), 2008
PMID: 18678122
The relationship between self-esteem and parenting style
Herz L, Gullone E., 1999
Perceived parental styles in a Japanese sample of depressive disorders. A replication outside Western culture.
Sato T, Sakado K, Uehara T, Nishioka K, Kasahara Y., Br J Psychiatry 170(), 1997
PMID: 9093509
Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children.
Caspi A, McClay J, Moffitt TE, Mill J, Martin J, Craig IW, Taylor A, Poulton R., Science 297(5582), 2002
PMID: 12161658
Differences in perceived parental care and protection and related psychological distress between British Asian and non-Asian adolescents
Shams M, Williams R., 1995
Parenting of Asians
Chao R, Tseng V., 2002
Protective parenting after the death of a child
Rosenblatt PC., 2000
Demographic correlates of individualism and collectivism: a study of social values in Sri Lanka
Freeman MA., 1997
Why do ethnic minority (Indian) children living in Britain display more internalizing problems than their English peers? The role of social support and parental style as mediators
Atzaba-Poria N, Pike A., 2005
Depression and perceptions of early parenting: a longitudinal investigation.
Gotlib IH, Mount JH, Cordy NI, Whiffen VE., Br J Psychiatry 152(), 1988
PMID: 3167341
Parent influences on early childhood internalizing difficulties
Bayer JK, Sanson AV, Hemphill SA., 2006
The stability of the Parental Bonding Instrument over a 20-year period.
Wilhelm K, Niven H, Parker G, Hadzi-Pavlovic D., Psychol Med 35(3), 2005
PMID: 15841874
Narrative exposure therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children.
Ruf M, Schauer M, Neuner F, Catani C, Schauer E, Elbert T., J Trauma Stress 23(4), 2010
PMID: 20684019
Interventions for children affected by war: an ecological perspective on psychosocial support and mental health care.
Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki SE, Charrow AP, Tol WA., Harv Rev Psychiatry 21(2), 2013
PMID: 23656831


Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 26302824
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar