Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes

Schindler S, Wolff W, Kißler J, Brand R (2015)
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9: 139.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Schindler, SebastianUniBi ; Wolff, Wanja; Kißler, JohannaUniBi; Brand, Ralf
Abstract / Bemerkung
Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Open-Access-Publikationskosten wurden durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft und die Universität Bielefeld gefördert.
Page URI


Schindler S, Wolff W, Kißler J, Brand R. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2015;9: 139.
Schindler, S., Wolff, W., Kißler, J., & Brand, R. (2015). Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 139. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00139
Schindler, Sebastian, Wolff, Wanja, Kißler, Johanna, and Brand, Ralf. 2015. “Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes”. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9: 139.
Schindler, S., Wolff, W., Kißler, J., and Brand, R. (2015). Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9:139.
Schindler, S., et al., 2015. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9: 139.
S. Schindler, et al., “Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes”, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 9, 2015, : 139.
Schindler, S., Wolff, W., Kißler, J., Brand, R.: Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 9, : 139 (2015).
Schindler, Sebastian, Wolff, Wanja, Kißler, Johanna, and Brand, Ralf. “Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes”. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9 (2015): 139.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Copyright Statement:
Dieses Objekt ist durch das Urheberrecht und/oder verwandte Schutzrechte geschützt. [...]
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
MD5 Prüfsumme

5 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Paper vs. Pixel: Can We Use a Pen-and-Paper Method to Measure Athletes' Implicit Doping Attitude?
Chan DKC, Lee ASY, Tang TCW, Gucciardi DF, Yung PSH, Hagger MS., Front Psychol 8(), 2017
PMID: 28659837
Uninstructed BIAT faking when ego depleted or in normal state: differential effect on brain and behavior.
Wolff W, Schindler S, Englert C, Brand R, Kissler J., BMC Neurosci 17(1), 2016
PMID: 27142046

78 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Detecting fakers of the autobiographical IAT
Agosta S., Ghirardi V., Zogmaister C., Castiello U., Sartori G.., 2010
The autobiographical IAT: a review.
Agosta S, Sartori G., Front Psychol 4(), 2013
PMID: 23964261
Psychophysiological evidence of response conflict and strategic control of responses in affective priming
Bartholow B., Riordan M., Saults J., Lust S.., 2009
If attitudes affect how stimuli are processed, should they not affect the event-related brain potential?
Cacioppo J., Crites S., Berntson G., Coles M.., 1993
Anterobasal temporal lobe lesions alter recurrent functional connectivity within the ventral pathway during naming.
Campo P, Poch C, Toledano R, Igoa JM, Belinchon M, Garcia-Morales I, Gil-Nagel A., J. Neurosci. 33(31), 2013
PMID: 23904604

Cohen J.., 1988
Faking of the Implicit Association Test is statistically detectable and partly correctable
Cvencek D., Greenwald A., Brown A., Gray N., Snowden R.., 2010
Novel attitudes can be faked on the Implicit Association Test
De J., Beckers T., Moors A.., 2007
Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review.
De Houwer J, Teige-Mocigemba S, Spruyt A, Moors A., Psychol Bull 135(3), 2009
PMID: 19379018
Thinking about intentions.
den Ouden HE, Frith U, Frith C, Blakemore SJ., Neuroimage 28(4), 2005
PMID: 15964210
Racial ingroup and outgroup attention biases revealed by event-related brain potentials.
Dickter CL, Bartholow BD., Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2(3), 2007
PMID: 18985140
Faking the IAT: aided and unaided response control on the Implicit Association Tests
Fiedler K., Bluemke M.., 2005
Influence of cognitive control and mismatch on the N2 component of the ERP: a review.
Folstein JR, Van Petten C., Psychophysiology 45(1), 2007
PMID: 17850238
Identifying temporal and causal contributions of neural processes underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT).
Forbes CE, Cameron KA, Grafman J, Barbey A, Solomon J, Ritter W, Ruchkin DS., Front Hum Neurosci 6(), 2012
PMID: 23226123
Multiple sparse priors for the M/EEG inverse problem.
Friston K, Harrison L, Daunizeau J, Kiebel S, Phillips C, Trujillo-Barreto N, Henson R, Flandin G, Mattout J., Neuroimage 39(3), 2007
PMID: 17997111
Lying in the scanner: covert countermeasures disrupt deception detection by functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Ganis G, Rosenfeld JP, Meixner J, Kievit RA, Schendan HE., Neuroimage 55(1), 2010
PMID: 21111834
Right hemispheric dominance of inhibitory control: an event-related functional MRI study.
Garavan H, Ross TJ, Stein EA., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96(14), 1999
PMID: 10393989
Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test.
Greenwald AG, McGhee DE, Schwartz JL., J Pers Soc Psychol 74(6), 1998
PMID: 9654756
Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.
Greenwald AG, Nosek BA, Banaji MR., J Pers Soc Psychol 85(2), 2003
PMID: 12916565
Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity.
Greenwald AG, Poehlman TA, Uhlmann EL, Banaji MR., J Pers Soc Psychol 97(1), 2009
PMID: 19586237
Does social desirability influence the relationship between doping attitudes and doping susceptibility in athletes?
Gucciardi D., Jalleh G., Donovan R.., 2010
Anticipatory signatures of voluntary memory suppression.
Hanslmayr S, Leipold P, Pastotter B, Bauml KH., J. Neurosci. 29(9), 2009
PMID: 19261868

Hautzinger M., Keller F., Kühner C.., 2009
Temporal dynamics of early perceptual processing.
Hillyard SA, Teder-Salejarvi WA, Munte TF., Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 8(2), 1998
PMID: 9635203
Localizing visual discrimination processes in time and space.
Hopf JM, Vogel E, Woodman G, Heinze HJ, Luck SJ., J. Neurophysiol. 88(4), 2002
PMID: 12364530
Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT.
Ibanez A, Gleichgerrcht E, Hurtado E, Gonzalez R, Haye A, Manes FF., Front Hum Neurosci 4(), 2010
PMID: 21079750
A triarchic model of P300 amplitude.
Johnson R Jr., Psychophysiology 23(4), 1986
PMID: 3774922
The contribution of executive processes to deceptive responding.
Johnson R Jr, Barnhardt J, Zhu J., Neuropsychologia 42(7), 2004
PMID: 14998703
The role of episodic memory in controlled evaluative judgments about attitudes: an event-related potential study.
Johnson R Jr, Simon EJ, Henkell H, Zhu J., Neuropsychologia 49(5), 2011
PMID: 21262245
Empathy and social desirability: a comparison of delinquent and non-delinquent participants using direct and indirect measures
Kaempfe N., Penzhorn J., Schikora J., Duenzl J., Schneidenbach J.., 2009
Voluntary controllability of the implicit association test (IAT)
Kim D.., 2003
Health beliefs, disease severity, and patient adherence: a meta-analysis.
DiMatteo MR, Haskard KB, Williams SL., Med Care 45(6), 2007
PMID: 17515779
The measurement of attitudes
Krosnick J., Judd C., Wittenbrink B.., 2005
Electrophysiological correlates of exemplar-specific processes in implicit and explicit memory.
Kuper K, Groh-Bordin C, Zimmer HD, Ecker UK., Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12(1), 2012
PMID: 22038704
When 'go' and 'nogo' are equally frequent: ERP components and cortical tomography.
Lavric A, Pizzagalli DA, Forstmeier S., Eur. J. Neurosci. 20(9), 2004
PMID: 15525290
Electromagnetic source reconstruction for group studies.
Litvak V, Friston K., Neuroimage 42(4), 2008
PMID: 18639641
EEG and MEG data analysis in SPM8.
Litvak V, Mattout J, Kiebel S, Phillips C, Henson R, Kilner J, Barnes G, Oostenveld R, Daunizeau J, Flandin G, Penny W, Friston K., Comput Intell Neurosci 2011(), 2011
PMID: 21437221
Algorithmic procedures for Bayesian MEG/EEG source reconstruction in SPM.
Lopez JD, Litvak V, Espinosa JJ, Friston K, Barnes GR., Neuroimage 84(), 2013
PMID: 24041874
Doping attitudes and the use of legal and illegal performance-enhancing substances among Italian adolescents
Mallia L., Lucidi F., Zelli A., Violani C.., 2013
An assessment of the fakeability of self-report and implicit personality measures
McDaniel M., Beier M., Perkins A., Goggin S., Frankel B.., 2009
Interference resolution: insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging tasks.
Nee DE, Wager TD, Jonides J., Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 7(1), 2007
PMID: 17598730
Personal and psychosocial predictors of doping use in physical activity settings: a meta-analysis.
Ntoumanis N, Ng JY, Barkoukis V, Backhouse S., Sports Med 44(11), 2014
PMID: 25138312
Hierarchical models
Penny W., Henson R.., 2007
Attentional control during the transient updating of cue information.
Pessoa L, Rossi A, Japee S, Desimone R, Ungerleider LG., Brain Res. 1247(), 2008
PMID: 18992228
ElectroMagnetoEncephalography software: overview and integration with other EEG/MEG toolboxes.
Peyk P, De Cesarei A, Junghofer M., Comput Intell Neurosci 2011(), 2011
PMID: 21577273
Exaggeration is harder than understatement, but practice makes perfect!
Rohner J, Schroder-Abe M, Schutz A., Exp Psychol 58(6), 2011
PMID: 21592941
What do fakers actually do to fake the IAT? An investigation of faking strategies under different faking conditions
Roehner J., Schroeder-Abe M., Schuetz A.., 2013
A region of right posterior superior temporal sulcus responds to observed intentional actions.
Saxe R, Xiao DK, Kovacs G, Perrett DI, Kanwisher N., Neuropsychologia 42(11), 2004
PMID: 15246282
It's all in your head - how anticipating evaluation affects the processing of emotional trait adjectives.
Schindler S, Wegrzyn M, Steppacher I, Kissler J., Front Psychol 5(), 2014
PMID: 25426095
Perceived communicative context and emotional content amplify visual word processing in the fusiform gyrus.
Schindler S, Wegrzyn M, Steppacher I, Kissler J., J. Neurosci. 35(15), 2015
PMID: 25878274
Measuring anxiety and anger with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI)
Spielberger C., Sydeman S., Owen A., Marsh B.., 1999
The Brief Implicit Association Test.
Sriram N, Greenwald AG., Exp Psychol 56(4), 2009
PMID: 19439401
Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior.
Strack F, Deutsch R., Pers Soc Psychol Rev 8(3), 2004
PMID: 15454347
A practical guide to implicit association tests and related tasks
Teige-Mocigemba S., Klauer K., Sherman J.., 2010
Automated anatomical labeling of activations in SPM using a macroscopic anatomical parcellation of the MNI MRI single-subject brain.
Tzourio-Mazoyer N, Landeau B, Papathanassiou D, Crivello F, Etard O, Delcroix N, Mazoyer B, Joliot M., Neuroimage 15(1), 2002
PMID: 11771995
Cheating the lie detector: faking in the autobiographical Implicit Association Test.
Verschuere B, Prati V, Houwer JD., Psychol Sci 20(4), 2009
PMID: 19298261
Preparation for action: an ERP study about two tasks provoking variability in response speed.
Wascher E, Verleger R, Jaskowski P, Wauschkuhn B., Psychophysiology 33(3), 1996
PMID: 8936395
Neural correlates of the implicit association test: evidence for semantic and emotional processing.
Williams JK, Themanson JR., Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 6(4), 2010
PMID: 20601422
Neural markers of inhibition in human memory retrieval.
Wimber M, Bauml KH, Bergstrom Z, Markopoulos G, Heinze HJ, Richardson-Klavehn A., J. Neurosci. 28(50), 2008
PMID: 19074015
Representation of attitudinal knowledge: role of prefrontal cortex, amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus.
Wood JN, Romero SG, Knutson KM, Grafman J., Neuropsychologia 43(2), 2005
PMID: 15707909
Conflict control during sentence comprehension: fMRI evidence.
Ye Z, Zhou X., Neuroimage 48(1), 2009
PMID: 19540923

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 26074798
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar