Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion

Kraus C, Mueller B, Meise K, Piedrahita P, Pörschmann U, Trillmich F (2013)
Oecologia 171(4): 893-903.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
 
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Abstract / Bemerkung
In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes.
Stichworte
Sex; differential mortality; Zalophus wollebaeki; Male-biased allocation; Fragile males; Environmental variability
Erscheinungsjahr
2013
Zeitschriftentitel
Oecologia
Band
171
Ausgabe
4
Seite(n)
893-903
ISSN
0029-8549
eISSN
1432-1939
Page URI
https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2584648

Zitieren

Kraus C, Mueller B, Meise K, Piedrahita P, Pörschmann U, Trillmich F. Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion. Oecologia. 2013;171(4):893-903.
Kraus, C., Mueller, B., Meise, K., Piedrahita, P., Pörschmann, U., & Trillmich, F. (2013). Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion. Oecologia, 171(4), 893-903. doi:10.1007/s00442-012-2469-7
Kraus, C., Mueller, B., Meise, K., Piedrahita, P., Pörschmann, U., and Trillmich, F. (2013). Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion. Oecologia 171, 893-903.
Kraus, C., et al., 2013. Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion. Oecologia, 171(4), p 893-903.
C. Kraus, et al., “Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion”, Oecologia, vol. 171, 2013, pp. 893-903.
Kraus, C., Mueller, B., Meise, K., Piedrahita, P., Pörschmann, U., Trillmich, F.: Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion. Oecologia. 171, 893-903 (2013).
Kraus, C., Mueller, B., Meise, Kristine, Piedrahita, Paolo, Pörschmann, Ulrich, and Trillmich, Fritz. “Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion”. Oecologia 171.4 (2013): 893-903.

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