Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions

Staniloiu A, Markowitsch HJ (2012)
Frontiers in Psychology 3: 403.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Abstract / Bemerkung
Remembering the past is a core feature of human beings, enabling them to maintain a sense of wholeness and identity and preparing them for the demands of the future. Forgetting operates in a dynamic neural connection with remembering, allowing the elimination of unnecessary or irrelevant information overload and decreasing interference. Stress and traumatic experiences could affect this connection, resulting in memory disturbances, such as functional amnesia. An overview of clinical, epidemiological, neuropsychological, and neurobiological aspects of functional amnesia is presented, by preponderantly resorting to own data from patients with functional amnesia. Patients were investigated medically, neuropsychologically, and neuroradiologically. A detailed report of a new case is included to illustrate the challenges posed by making an accurate differential diagnosis of functional amnesia, a condition that may encroach on the boundaries between psychiatry and neurology. Several mechanisms may play a role in "forgetting" in functional amnesia, such as retrieval impairments, consolidating defects, motivated forgetting, deficits in binding and reassembling details of the past, deficits in establishing a first person autonoetic connection with personal events, and loss of information. In a substantial number of patients, we observed a synchronization abnormality between a frontal lobe system, important for autonoetic consciousness, and a temporo-amygdalar system, important for evaluation and emotions, which provides empirical support for an underlying mechanism of dissociation (a failure of integration between cognition and emotion). This observation suggests a mnestic blockade in functional amnesia that is triggered by psychological or environmental stress and is underpinned by a stress hormone mediated synchronization abnormality during retrieval between processing of affect-laden events and fact-processing.
Frontiers in Psychology
Open-Access-Publikationskosten wurden durch die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft und die Universität Bielefeld gefördert.
Page URI


Staniloiu A, Markowitsch HJ. Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions. Frontiers in Psychology. 2012;3:403.
Staniloiu, A., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2012). Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 403. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00403
Staniloiu, Angelica, and Markowitsch, Hans J. 2012. “Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions”. Frontiers in Psychology 3: 403.
Staniloiu, A., and Markowitsch, H. J. (2012). Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions. Frontiers in Psychology 3, 403.
Staniloiu, A., & Markowitsch, H.J., 2012. Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, p 403.
A. Staniloiu and H.J. Markowitsch, “Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions”, Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 3, 2012, pp. 403.
Staniloiu, A., Markowitsch, H.J.: Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions. Frontiers in Psychology. 3, 403 (2012).
Staniloiu, Angelica, and Markowitsch, Hans J. “Towards solving the riddle of forgetting in functional amnesia: recent advances and current opinions”. Frontiers in Psychology 3 (2012): 403.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Copyright Statement:
Dieses Objekt ist durch das Urheberrecht und/oder verwandte Schutzrechte geschützt. [...]
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
MD5 Prüfsumme

5 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Episodic future thinking and future-based decision-making in a case of retrograde amnesia.
De Luca F, Benuzzi F, Bertossi E, Braghittoni D, di Pellegrino G, Ciaramelli E., Neuropsychologia 110(), 2018
PMID: 28801245
Self, memory, and imagining the future in a case of psychogenic amnesia.
Rathbone CJ, Ellis JA, Baker I, Butler CR., Neurocase 21(6), 2015
PMID: 25386796
Clinical correlates of retrograde amnesia in mild traumatic brain injury.
Luoto TM, Iverson GL, Losoi H, Wäljas M, Tenovuo O, Kataja A, Brander A, Öhman J., Brain Inj 29(5), 2015
PMID: 25789824
Social cognition in a case of amnesia with neurodevelopmental mechanisms.
Staniloiu A, Borsutzky S, Woermann FG, Markowitsch HJ., Front Psychol 4(), 2013
PMID: 23805111

248 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Selective impairment in the retrieval of family relationships in person identification: a case study of delusional misidentification.
Abe N, Ishii H, Fujii T, Ueno A, Lee E, Ishioka T, Mori E., Neuropsychologia 45(13), 2007
PMID: 17655885
Psychogenic loss of personal identity
Abeles M., Schilder P.., 1935
About the Distinction between Working Memory and Short-Term Memory.
Aben B, Stapert S, Blokland A., Front Psychol 3(), 2012
PMID: 22936922
Episodic simulation of future events is impaired in mild Alzheimer's disease.
Addis DR, Sacchetti DC, Ally BA, Budson AE, Schacter DL., Neuropsychologia 47(12), 2009
PMID: 19497331
Imbalanced neural responsivity to risk and reward indicates stress vulnerability in humans.
Admon R, Lubin G, Rosenblatt JD, Stern O, Kahn I, Assaf M, Hendler T., Cereb. Cortex 23(1), 2012
PMID: 22291028
What does the amygdala contribute to social cognition?
Adolphs R., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1191(), 2010
PMID: 20392275
Optimization of ionic conductivity in doped ceria.
Andersson DA, Simak SI, Skorodumova NV, Abrikosov IA, Johansson B., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(10), 2006
PMID: 16478802
Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control.
Anderson MC, Green C., Nature 410(6826), 2001
PMID: 11268212
Intentional suppression of unwanted memories grows more difficult as we age.
Anderson MC, Reinholz J, Kuhl BA, Mayr U., Psychol Aging 26(2), 2011
PMID: 21443352
Psychogenic amnesia and self-identity: a multimodal functional investigation.
Arzy S, Collette S, Wissmeyer M, Lazeyras F, Kaplan PW, Blanke O., Eur. J. Neurol. 18(12), 2011
PMID: 21554495
Memory formation by neuronal synchronization.
Axmacher N, Mormann F, Fernandez G, Elger CE, Fell J., Brain Res Rev 52(1), 2006
PMID: 16545463
The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?
Baddeley A., Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 4(11), 2000
PMID: 11058819
“Working memory,”
Baddeley A., Hitch G.., 1974
A case of simulated, psychogenic or focal pure retrograde amnesia: did an entire life become unconscious?
Barbarotto R, Laiacona M, Cocchini G., Neuropsychologia 34(6), 1996
PMID: 8736570
Transient global amnesia: functional anatomy and clinical implications.
Bartsch T, Deuschl G., Lancet Neurol 9(2), 2010
PMID: 20129169
Illness related deception: social or psychiatric problem?
Bass C, Halligan PW., J R Soc Med 100(2), 2007
PMID: 17277280

Beck A., Steer R., Hautzinger M.., 1995
A genetic analysis of individual differences in dissociative behaviors in childhood and adolescence.
Becker-Blease KA, Deater-Deckard K, Eley T, Freyd JJ, Stevenson J, Plomin R., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45(3), 2004
PMID: 15055371
Dissociation in hysteria and hypnosis: evidence from cognitive neuroscience.
Bell V, Oakley DA, Halligan PW, Deeley Q., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 82(3), 2010
PMID: 20884677
Conversion hysteria: lessons from functional imaging.
Black DN, Seritan AL, Taber KH, Hurley RA., J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 16(3), 2004
PMID: 15377731
Hysteria after Charcot: back to the future
Bogousslavsky J.., 2011

Boone K.., 2007
Confabulations in alcoholic Korsakoff patients.
Borsutzky S, Fujiwara E, Brand M, Markowitsch HJ., Neuropsychologia 46(13), 2008
PMID: 18675286
Susceptibility to false memories in patients with ACoA aneurysm.
Borsutzky S, Fujiwara E, Brand M, Markowitsch HJ., Neuropsychologia 48(10), 2010
PMID: 20488196

Bowers D., Blonder L., Heilman K.., 1991
Functional brain imaging in 14 patients with dissociative amnesia reveals right inferolateral prefrontal hypometabolism.
Brand M, Eggers C, Reinhold N, Fujiwara E, Kessler J, Heiss WD, Markowitsch HJ., Psychiatry Res 174(1), 2009
PMID: 19783409
“Amnesia: neuroanatomic and clinical issues,”
Brand M., Markowitsch H.., 2003
“Memory processes and the orbitofrontal cortex,”
Brand M., Markowitsch H.., 2006
Functional ("psychogenic") amnesia.
Brandt J, Van Gorp WG., Semin Neurol 26(3), 2006
PMID: 16791779
“Clinical and therapeutic treatise on hysteria,”
Briquet P.., 1859
Retroactive amnesia: illustrative cases and a tentative explanation
Burnham W.., 1903
The amygdala and emotional memory.
Cahill L, Babinsky R, Markowitsch HJ, McGaugh JL., Nature 377(6547), 1995
PMID: 7566084

Calabrese P., Kessler J.., 2000
[Word generation in bilinguals--fMRI study with implications for language and memory processes]
Calabrese P, Neufeld H, Falk A, Markowitsch HJ, Muller C, Heuser L, Gehlen W, Durwen HF., Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 69(1), 2001
PMID: 11227986

Carter R.., 1853

Casey E.., 2000
Behavior genetics and postgenomics.
Charney E., Behav Brain Sci 35(5), 2012
PMID: 23095378
Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays.
Clayton NS, Dickinson A., Nature 395(6699), 1998
PMID: 9751053
Psychogenic amnesia: a clinical investigation of 25 cases
Coons P., Milstein V.., 1992
What's new with the amnesic patient H.M.?
Corkin S., Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 3(2), 2002
PMID: 11836523
Detestable or marvelous? Neuroanatomical correlates of character judgments.
Croft KE, Duff MC, Kovach CK, Anderson SW, Adolphs R, Tranel D., Neuropsychologia 48(6), 2010
PMID: 20211193

Dahl G.., 1972
Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.
Dalenberg CJ, Brand BL, Gleaves DH, Dorahy MJ, Loewenstein RJ, Cardena E, Frewen PA, Carlson EB, Spiegel D., Psychol Bull 138(3), 2012
PMID: 22409505
Head injury, dissociation and the Ganser syndrome.
Dalfen AK, Anthony F., Brain Inj 14(12), 2000
PMID: 11147582
Defining the boundary of childhood amnesia.
Davis N, Gross J, Hayne H., Memory 16(5), 2008
PMID: 18569676
“Neuroendocrine markers of early trauma,”
de E., Rinne T.., 2007
Is memory loss without anatomical damage tantamount to a psychogenic deficit? The case of pure retrograde amnesia.
Di Renzi E, Lucchelli F, Muggia S, Spinnler H., Neuropsychologia 35(6), 1997
PMID: 9204485
“Relationship between trauma and dissociation,”
Dorahy M., van O.., 2007

Hippocampal amnesia disrupts the flexible use of procedural discourse in social interaction.
Duff MC, Hengst JA, Tengshe C, Krema A, Tranel D, Cohen NJ., Aphasiology 22(7-8), 2008
PMID: 19234620
Ganser's syndrome.
Dwyer J, Reid S., Lancet 364(9432), 2004
PMID: 15288747

Eco U., Gould S., Carrière J.-C., Delumeau J.., 1999
Neural systems mediating field and observer memories.
Eich E, Nelson AL, Leghari MA, Handy TC., Neuropsychologia 47(11), 2009
PMID: 19524090
The unified theory of repression.
Erdelyi MH., Behav Brain Sci 29(5), 2006
PMID: 17156548
MNESIS: towards the integration of current multisystem models of memory.
Eustache F, Desgranges B., Neuropsychol Rev 18(1), 2008
PMID: 18311523
Isolated retrograde amnesia.
Fast K, Fujiwara E., Neurocase 7(4), 2001
PMID: 11557823

Fast K., Fujiwara E., Schröder J., Markowitsch H.., 2012
Cerebral representation of one's own past: neural networks involved in autobiographical memory.
Fink GR, Markowitsch HJ, Reinkemeier M, Bruckbauer T, Kessler J, Heiss WD., J. Neurosci. 16(13), 1996
PMID: 8753888
Longitudinal brain metabolic changes from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.
Fouquet M, Desgranges B, Landeau B, Duchesnay E, Mezenge F, de la Sayette V, Viader F, Baron JC, Eustache F, Chetelat G., Brain 132(Pt 8), 2009
PMID: 19477964
Early experience in humans is associated with changes in neuropeptides critical for regulating social behavior.
Wismer Fries AB, Ziegler TE, Kurian JR, Jacoris S, Pollak SD., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(47), 2005
PMID: 16303870
Multiple personality disorder in Japan.
Fujii Y, Suzuki K, Sato T, Murakami Y, Takahashi T., Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 52(3), 1998
PMID: 9681581

Fujiwara E.., 2004
Functional retrograde amnesia: a multiple case study.
Fujiwara E, Brand M, Kracht L, Kessler J, Diebel A, Netz J, Markowitsch HJ., Cortex 44(1), 2007
PMID: 18387529
“Durch Angst- und Stresszustände ausgelöste Gedächtnisblockaden und deren mögliche hirnorganische Korrelate [Memory blocks triggered by states of anxiety and stress and its possible brain-organic correlates],”
Fujiwara E., Markowitsch H.., 2003
“Brain correlates of binding processes of emotion and memory,”
Fujiwara E., Markowitsch H.., 2006
Reconsolidation: does the past linger on?
Fulton D., J. Neurosci. 26(43), 2006
PMID: 17068863
Neural correlates of different types of deception: an fMRI investigation.
Ganis G, Kosslyn SM, Stose S, Thompson WL, Yurgelun-Todd DA., Cereb. Cortex 13(8), 2003
PMID: 12853369
Ueber einen eigenartigen hysterischen Dämmerzustand [On a peculiar hysterical state of somnolence]
Ganser S.., 1898
Zur Lehre vom hysterischen Dämmerzustande [On the theory of the hysterical state of somnolence]
Ganser S.., 1904
A case of psychogenic fugue: I understand, aber ich verstehe nichts.
Glisky EL, Ryan L, Reminger S, Hardt O, Hayes SM, Hupbach A., Neuropsychologia 42(8), 2004
PMID: 15093151

Hacking I.., 1995
Consolidation of human memory over decades revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Haist F, Bowden Gore J, Mao H., Nat. Neurosci. 4(11), 2001
PMID: 11600889

Härting C., Markowitsch H., Neufeld H., Calabrese P., Deisinger K., Kessler J.., 2000
Olfactory dysfunction after head injury.
Haxel BR, Grant L, Mackay-Sim A., J Head Trauma Rehabil 23(6), 2008
PMID: 19033834
Asymmetry of the uncinate fasciculus: a post-mortem study of normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia.
Highley JR, Walker MA, Esiri MM, Crow TJ, Harrison PJ., Cereb. Cortex 12(11), 2002
PMID: 12379610
Toward a medical anthropology of sensations: definitions and research agenda.
Hinton DE, Howes D, Kirmayer LJ., Transcult Psychiatry 45(2), 2008
PMID: 18562491
Anatomischer Befund eines Falles mit Zeittrafferphänomen
Hoff H., Pötzl O.., 1938


James W.., 1984
L’amnesie hysterique [Hysterical amnesia]
Janet P.., 1892

Janet P.., 1907
Study of cases of anterograde amnesia in a disease of mental disintegration.
Janet P, Nicolas S, Penel A., Hist Psychiatry 12(48 Pt 4), 2001
PMID: 11951870
Retrograde amnesia and malingering.
Jenkins KG, Kapur N, Kopelman MD., Curr. Opin. Neurol. 22(6), 2009
PMID: 19745730
Bipolar affective puerperal psychosis: genome-wide significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 16.
Jones I, Hamshere M, Nangle JM, Bennett P, Green E, Heron J, Segurado R, Lambert D, Holmans P, Corvin A, Owen M, Jones L, Gill M, Craddock N., Am J Psychiatry 164(7), 2007
PMID: 17606662
The function of 'functional': a mixed methods investigation.
Kanaan RA, Armstrong D, Wessely SC., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 83(3), 2012
PMID: 22250186
Amnesia, a statistical study
Kanzer M.., 1939
Massive and persistent anterograde amnesia in the absence of detectable brain damage: anterograde psychogenic amnesia or gross reduction in sustained effort?
Kessler J, Markowitsch HJ, Huber M, Kalbe E, Weber-Luxenburger G, Kock P., J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 19(4), 1997
PMID: 9342692
Amnesia: a clinical study of ninety-eight cases.
KIERSCH TA., Am J Psychiatry 119(), 1962
PMID: 14455831
The great escape: a neuropsychological study of psychogenic amnesia.
Kopelman MD, Christensen H, Puffett A, Stanhope N., Neuropsychologia 32(6), 1994
PMID: 8084423
Alexithymia after traumatic brain injury: its relation to magnetic resonance imaging findings and psychiatric disorders.
Koponen S, Taiminen T, Honkalampi K, Joukamaa M, Viinamaki H, Kurki T, Portin R, Himanen L, Isoniemi H, Hinkka S, Tenovuo O., Psychosom Med 67(5), 2005
PMID: 16204442
Looking toward DSM-V: should factitious disorder become a subtype of somatoform disorder?
Krahn LE, Bostwick JM, Stonnington CM., Psychosomatics 49(4), 2008
PMID: 18621932
Functional amnesia: clinical description and neuropsychological profile of 10 cases.
Kritchevsky M, Chang J, Squire LR., Learn. Mem. 11(2), 2004
PMID: 15054137
Widespread cognitive impairment in psychogenic anterograde amnesia.
Kumar S, Rao SL, Sunny B, Gangadhar BN., Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 61(6), 2007
PMID: 18081616

Kundera M.., 1985
Function and regulation of Rnd proteins.
Chardin P., Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7(1), 2006
PMID: 16493413
Ganser symptoms in a case of frontal-temporal lobe dementia: is there a common neural substrate?
Ladowsky-Brooks RL, Fischer CE., J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 25(6), 2003
PMID: 13680454
Episodic autobiographical memory in depression: Specificity, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective.
Lemogne C, Piolino P, Friszer S, Claret A, Girault N, Jouvent R, Allilaire JF, Fossati P., Conscious Cogn 15(2), 2005
PMID: 16154765
Amnesia, real and feigned
Lennox W.., 1943
Episodic memory and the self in a case of isolated retrograde amnesia.
Levine B, Black SE, Cabeza R, Sinden M, Mcintosh AR, Toth JP, Tulving E, Stuss DT., Brain 121 ( Pt 10)(), 1998
PMID: 9798749

Lewis A.., 1963

Lezak M.., 1995
Standardized diagnostic interviews, criteria, and algorithms for mental disorders: garbage in, garbage out.
Linden M, Muschalla B., Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262(6), 2012
PMID: 22274737
Multifocal white matter ultrastructural abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury with cognitive disability: a voxel-wise analysis of diffusion tensor imaging.
Lipton ML, Gellella E, Lo C, Gold T, Ardekani BA, Shifteh K, Bello JA, Branch CA., J. Neurotrauma 25(11), 2008
PMID: 19061376
Diffusion-tensor imaging implicates prefrontal axonal injury in executive function impairment following very mild traumatic brain injury
Lipton M., Gulko E., Zimmerman M., Friedman B., Kim M., Gelella E.., 2009
Psychogenic amnesia and psychogenic fugue: a comprehensive review
Loewenstein R.., 1991
The riddle of functional amnesia
Lundholm H.., 1932
Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition.
Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C., Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(6), 2009
PMID: 19401723

Luria A.., 1987
Dissociation and dissociative disorders: challenging conventional wisdom
Lynn S., Lilienfield S., Merckelbach H., Giesbrecht T., van D.., 2012
Conversion, dissociative amnesia, and Ganser syndrome in a case of "chameleon" syndrome: anatomo-functional findings.
Magnin E, Thomas-Anterion C, Sylvestre G, Haffen S, Magnin-Feysot V, Rumbach L., Neurocase 20(1), 2012
PMID: 23075263
“Dissociative disorders,”
Maldonado J., Spiegel D.., 2008
Hypotheses on mnemonic information processing by the brain.
Markowitsch HJ., Int. J. Neurosci. 27(3-4), 1985
PMID: 3930415
Diencephalic amnesia: a reorientation towards tracts?
Markowitsch H.., 1988

Markowitsch H.., 1992
“Anatomical basis of memory disorders,”
Markowitsch H.., 1995
Which brain regions are critically involved in the retrieval of old episodic memory?
Markowitsch HJ., Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. 21(2), 1995
PMID: 8866670
Organic and psychogenic retrograde amnesia: two sides of the same coin?
Markowitsch H.., 1996
Neuroimaging and mechanisms of brain function in psychiatric disorders
Markowitsch H.., 1999
Functional neuroimaging correlates of functional amnesia.
Markowitsch HJ., Memory 7(5-6), 1999
PMID: 10659087
Psychogenic amnesia.
Markowitsch HJ., Neuroimage 20 Suppl 1(), 2003
PMID: 14597306
“Time, memory, and consciousness. A view from the brain,”
Markowitsch H.., 2005
“Anterograde amnesia,”
Markowitsch H.., 2008
“Korsakoff’s syndrome,”
Markowitsch H.., 2010
Retrograde amnesia after traumatic injury of the fronto-temporal cortex.
Markowitsch HJ, Calabrese P, Liess J, Haupts M, Durwen HF, Gehlen W., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 56(9), 1993
PMID: 8410040
The amygdala's contribution to memory--a study on two patients with Urbach-Wiethe disease.
Markowitsch HJ, Calabrese P, Wurker M, Durwen HF, Kessler J, Babinsky R, Brechtelsbauer D, Heuser L, Gehlen W., Neuroreport 5(11), 1994
PMID: 7919196
A PET Study of Persistent Psychogenic Amnesia Covering the Whole Life Span.
Markowitsch HJ, Fink GR, Thone A, Kessler J, Heiss WD., Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2(2), 1997
PMID: 25420201
Functional amnesia and memory consolidation. A case of persistent anterograde amnesia with rapid forgetting following whiplash injury
Markowitsch H., Kessler J., Kalbe E., Herholz K.., 1999
Psychic trauma causing grossly reduced brain metabolism and cognitive deterioration.
Markowitsch HJ, Kessler J, Van Der Ven C, Weber-Luxenburger G, Albers M, Heiss WD., Neuropsychologia 36(1), 1998
PMID: 9533390
Neuroimaging and behavioral correlates of recovery from mnestic block syndrome and other cognitive deteriorations.
Markowitsch HJ, Kessler J, Weber-Luxenburger G, Van der Ven C, Albers M, Heiss WD., Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 13(1), 2000
PMID: 10645738
Memory, autonoetic consciousness, and the self.
Markowitsch HJ, Staniloiu A., Conscious Cogn 20(1), 2010
PMID: 20951059
Amygdala in action: relaying biological and social significance to autobiographical memory.
Markowitsch HJ, Staniloiu A., Neuropsychologia 49(4), 2010
PMID: 20933525
Amnesic disorders.
Markowitsch HJ, Staniloiu A., Lancet 380(9851), 2012
PMID: 22503117
The impairment of recollection in functional amnesic states
Markowitsch H., Staniloiu A.., 2012
Right amygdalar and temporofrontal activation during autobiographic, but not during fictitious memory retrieval.
Markowitsch HJ, Thiel A, Reinkemeier M, Kessler J, Koyuncu A, Heiss WD., Behav Neurol 12(4), 2000
PMID: 11568430
Deficient activity in the neural systems that mediate self-regulatory control in bulimia nervosa.
Marsh R, Steinglass JE, Gerber AJ, Graziano O'Leary K, Wang Z, Murphy D, Walsh BT, Peterson BS., Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 66(1), 2009
PMID: 19124688
Somatoform disorders: time for a new approach in DSM-V.
Mayou R, Kirmayer LJ, Simon G, Kroenke K, Sharpe M., Am J Psychiatry 162(5), 2005
PMID: 15863783
Allostasis and allostatic load: implications for neuropsychopharmacology.
McEwen BS., Neuropsychopharmacology 22(2), 2000
PMID: 10649824
Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse.
McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D'Alessio AC, Dymov S, Labonte B, Szyf M, Turecki G, Meaney MJ., Nat. Neurosci. 12(3), 2009
PMID: 19234457
Psychogenic amnesia: when memory complaints are medically unexplained
McKay G., Kopelman M.., 2009
From sensation to cognition.
Mesulam MM., Brain 121 ( Pt 6)(), 1998
PMID: 9648540
The magical number seven plus minus two. Some limits on our capacity for processing information
Miller G.., 1956
Cerebral glucose metabolism in adolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Ernst M, Cohen RM, Liebenauer LL, Jons PH, Zametkin AJ., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36(10), 1997
PMID: 9334553
“Memories and habits: some implications for the analysis of learning and retention,”
Mishkin M., Petri H.., 1984

Mitchell S., Black M.., 1995
Memory formation, consolidation and transformation.
Nadel L, Hupbach A, Gomez R, Newman-Smith K., Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36(7), 2012
PMID: 22465050
A single standard for memory: the case for reconsolidation.
Nader K, Hardt O., Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10(3), 2009
PMID: 19229241
The Ganser syndrome in an adolescent Hispanic-black female.
Nardi TJ, Di Scipio WJ., Am J Psychiatry 134(4), 1977
PMID: 842742
Temporal changes in traumatic brain injury detected by diffusion tensor imaging
Newcombe V., Williams G., Outtrim J., Chatfield D., Abare G., Geeraerts T.., 2012

Nieuwenhuys R., Voogt V., van C.., 2008
Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal cortex function in aging.
Nyberg L, Salami A, Andersson M, Eriksson J, Kalpouzos G, Kauppi K, Lind J, Pudas S, Persson J, Nilsson LG., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(52), 2010
PMID: 21156826
A Bayesian latent group analysis for detecting poor effort in the assessment of malingering.
Ortega A, Wagenmakers EJ, Lee MD, Markowitsch HJ, Piefke M., Arch Clin Neuropsychol 27(4), 2012
PMID: 22543568
Le test de copie d’une figure complexe [Test of copying a complex figure]
Osterrieth P.., 1944
A case of unusual autobiographical remembering.
Parker ES, Cahill L, McGaugh JL., Neurocase 12(1), 2006
PMID: 16517514
“Sleep and forgetting,”
Peigneux P., Schmitz R., Urbain C.., 2010
Right ventral frontal hypometabolism and abnormal sense of self in a case of disproportionate retrograde amnesia.
Piolino P, Hannequin D, Desgranges B, Girard C, Beaunieux H, Giffard B, Lebreton K, Eustache F., Cogn Neuropsychol 22(8), 2005
PMID: 21038287
Do school-age children remember or know the personal past?
Piolino P, Hisland M, Ruffeveille I, Matuszewski V, Jambaque I, Eustache F., Conscious Cogn 16(1), 2006
PMID: 16464615
Ein Fall von retrograder Amnesie nach einer Resektion eines Medulloblastoms – psychogen, organisch, funktionell? [A case of retrograde amnesia after resection of a medulloblastom – psychogenic, organic, functional?]
Pommerenke K., Staniloiu A., Markowitsch H., Eulitz H., Gütler R., Dettmers C.., 2012
Is dissociative amnesia a culture-bound syndrome? Findings from a survey of historical literature.
Pope HG Jr, Poliakoff MB, Parker MP, Boynes M, Hudson JI., Psychol Med 37(2), 2006
PMID: 17156503
Stress hormones and brain aging: adding injury to insult?
Porter NM, Landfield PW., Nat. Neurosci. 1(1), 1998
PMID: 10195096
Stress, conditioning, and the temporal aspects of affective disorders.
Post RM, Weiss SR, Smith M, Rosen J, Frye M., Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 771(), 1995
PMID: 8597441

Putnam F.., 1997
Functional neuroimaging in memory and memory disturbances
Reinhold N., Kühnel S., Brand M., Markowitsch H.., 2006
Emotion and consciousness in adolescent psychogenic amnesia.
Reinhold N, Markowitsch HJ., J Neuropsychol 1(Pt 1), 2007
PMID: 19331025
Retrograde episodic memory and emotion: a perspective from patients with dissociative amnesia.
Reinhold N, Markowitsch HJ., Neuropsychologia 47(11), 2009
PMID: 19524087

Ribot T.., 1882
Amnesia as an impairment of detail generation and binding: evidence from personal, fictional, and semantic narratives in K.C.
Rosenbaum RS, Gilboa A, Levine B, Winocur G, Moscovitch M., Neuropsychologia 47(11), 2008
PMID: 19100757
Functional retrograde amnesia: a quantitative case study.
Schacter DL, Wang PL, Tulving E, Freedman M., Neuropsychologia 20(5), 1982
PMID: 7145078
Autobiographisches Altgedächtnisinterview und semantisches Altgedächtnisinventar [Autobiographic old memory interview and semantic old memory inventary]
Schmidtke K., Vollmer-Schmolck H.., 1999
Über einige klinisch-psychologische Untersuchungsmethoden und ihre Ergebnisse. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Psychopathologie der Korsakowschen Psychose
Schneider K.., 1912
“Die Störungen des Gedächtnisses [Disturbances of memory],”
Schneider K.., 1928
Zur Psychopathologie und Psychotherapie amnestischer Zustände [On the psychopathology and psychotherapy of amnesic conditions]
Schultz J.., 1924
Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.
Sehm B, Frisch S, Thone-Otto A, Horstmann A, Villringer A, Obrig H., PLoS ONE 6(10), 2011
PMID: 22028902
Dissociative experience and cultural neuroscience: narrative, metaphor and mechanism.
Seligman R, Kirmayer LJ., Cult Med Psychiatry 32(1), 2008
PMID: 18213511

Semon R.., 1904
Amygdala, affect and cognition: evidence from 10 patients with Urbach-Wiethe disease.
Siebert M, Markowitsch HJ, Bartel P., Brain 126(Pt 12), 2003
PMID: 12937075
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy volunteers.
Simeon D, Knutelska M, Yehuda R, Putnam F, Schmeidler J, Smith LM., Biol. Psychiatry 61(8), 2006
PMID: 17137559
A follow-up of patients diagnosed as suffering from "hysteria".
Slater ET, Glithero E., J Psychosom Res 9(1), 1965
PMID: 5857619
Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia
Smith C., Frascino J., Kripke D., McHugh P., Treisman G., Squire L.., 2010

Sollier P.., 1892
Essai sur l’amnesie retro-anterograde dans l’hysterie, les traumatismes cerebraux et l’alcoolisme chronique [Essay about retrograde-anterograde amnesia in hysteria, cerebral trauma and chronic alcoholism]
Souques A.., 1892
Disintegrated experience: the dissociative disorders revisited.
Spiegel D, Cardena E., J Abnorm Psychol 100(3), 1991
PMID: 1918616
Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.
Spiegel D, Loewenstein RJ, Lewis-Fernandez R, Sar V, Simeon D, Vermetten E, Cardena E, Brown RJ, Dell PF., Depress Anxiety 28(12), 2011
PMID: 22134959
The legacy of patient H.M. for neuroscience.
Squire LR., Neuron 61(1), 2009
PMID: 19146808
The structure and organization of memory.
Squire LR, Knowlton B, Musen G., Annu Rev Psychol 44(), 1993
PMID: 8434894
Ganser syndrome with work-related onset in a patient with a background of immigration.
Staniloiu A, Bender A, Smolewska K, Ellis J, Abramowitz C, Markowitsch HJ., Cogn Neuropsychiatry 14(3), 2009
PMID: 19499385
“Dissociative memory disorders and immigration,”
Staniloiu A., Borsutzky S., Markowitsch H.., 2010
Psychogenic amnesia--a malady of the constricted self.
Staniloiu A, Markowitsch HJ, Brand M., Conscious Cogn 19(3), 2010
PMID: 20655759
Understanding psychogenic amnesia and psychiatric disorders as causes of dementia
Staniloiu A., Markowitsch H.., 2010
Searching for the anatomy of dissociative amnesia
Staniloiu A., Markowitsch H.., 2010
Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
Steele CM, Aronson J., J Pers Soc Psychol 69(5), 1995
PMID: 7473032
Memory consolidation and reconsolidation: what is the role of sleep?
Stickgold R, Walker MP., Trends Neurosci. 28(8), 2005
PMID: 15979164
The bare essentials: Functional symptoms in neurology.
Stone J., Pract Neurol 9(3), 2009
PMID: 19448064
La belle indifference in conversion symptoms and hysteria: systematic review.
Stone J, Smyth R, Carson A, Warlow C, Sharpe M., Br J Psychiatry 188(), 2006
PMID: 16507959
Mental time travel and the shaping of the human mind.
Suddendorf T, Addis DR, Corballis MC., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 364(1521), 2009
PMID: 19528013

Sullivan H.., 1972
Is multiple personality really rare in Japan?
Takahashi Y.., 1991
Amnesias in war cases
Thom D., Fenton N.., 1920
Can we see personal identity loss? A functional imaging study of typical 'hysterical amnesia'.
Thomas-Anterion C, Guedj E, Decousus M, Laurent B., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 81(4), 2010
PMID: 20360169

Tombaugh T.., 1996
Hypo-retrieval and hyper-suppression mechanisms in functional amnesia.
Tramoni E, Aubert-Khalfa S, Guye M, Ranjeva JP, Felician O, Ceccaldi M., Neuropsychologia 47(3), 2008
PMID: 19071144
“Episodic and semantic memory,”
Tulving E.., 1972

Tulving E.., 1983
“Organization of memory: quo vadis?”
Tulving E.., 1995
“Episodic memory and autonoesis: uniquely human?”
Tulving E.., 2005
Novelty and familiarity activations in PET studies of memory encoding and retrieval.
Tulving E, Markowitsch HJ, Craik FE, Habib R, Houle S., Cereb. Cortex 6(1), 1996
PMID: 8670640
Pierre Janet and the breakdown of adaptation in psychological trauma.
van der Kolk BA, van der Hart O., Am J Psychiatry 146(12), 1989
PMID: 2686473
Differential effects of early hippocampal pathology on episodic and semantic memory.
Vargha-Khadem F, Gadian DG, Watkins KE, Connelly A, Van Paesschen W, Mishkin M., Science 277(5324), 1997
PMID: 9219696
Mild traumatic brain injury causes reduction in hippocampal volumes over time that correlates with patient-reported cognitive impairment but does not correlate with verbal memory function
Venugopal S., Sampat M., LaHue S., Cooper S., Heffeman A., Yue J.., 2012
“The septum and human memory,”
von D., Markowitsch H.., 2000
The possible contribution of the septal region to memory.
von Cramon DY, Markowitsch HJ, Schuri U., Neuropsychologia 31(11), 1993
PMID: 8107978
Behavioural conditioning as the mediator of placebo responses in the immune system.
Vits S, Cesko E, Enck P, Hillen U, Schadendorf D, Schedlowski M., Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366(1572), 2011
PMID: 21576137

Vrij A.., 2000

Weinrich H.., 1997
Towards a bio-psycho-social model of autobiographical memory.
Welzer H, Markowitsch HJ., Memory 13(1), 2005
PMID: 15724908
Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory and Everyday Memory during Late Childhood and Early Adolescence.
Willoughby KA, Desrocher M, Levine B, Rovet JF., Front Psychol 3(), 2012
PMID: 22403560
WILSON G, RUPP C, WILSON WW., Am J Psychiatry 106(7), 1949
PMID: 15399136
The relationship between cerebral Alzheimer's disease pathology and odour identification in old age.
Wilson RS, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Tang Y, Bennett DA., J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 78(1), 2006
PMID: 17012338
Consolidating reconsolidation
Wood H.., 2003
Trauma and dissociation in China.
Xiao Z, Yan H, Wang Z, Zou Z, Xu Y, Chen J, Zhang H, Ross CA, Keyes BB., Am J Psychiatry 163(8), 2006
PMID: 16877651
Posttraumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among US veterans.
Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Lindquist K, Barnes D, Covinsky KE, Neylan T, Kluse M, Marmar C., Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 67(6), 2010
PMID: 20530010

Ziehen T.., 1908

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 23125838
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar