Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

Schaal S, Dusingizemungu J-P, Jacob N, Neuner F, Elbert T (2012)
Death Studies 36(2): 97-117.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
 
Download
Es wurden keine Dateien hochgeladen. Nur Publikationsnachweis!
Autor*in
Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, FrankUniBi; Elbert, Thomas
Abstract / Bemerkung
A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed a total of 400 orphaned or widowed survivors of the Rwandan genocide. The syndromes were strongly linked to each other with a high comorbidity. Principal axis factoring resulted in the emergence of 4 different factors. The symptoms of depression, along with the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of PGD, loaded on the first factor, symptoms of anxiety on the second factor, symptoms of PTSD on the third factor, and the separation distress symptoms of PGD on the fourth factor. This indicates that the concept of PGD includes symptoms that are conceptually related to depression. However, the symptom cluster of separation distress presents a grief-specific dimension that may surface unrelated to depressive symptoms.
Erscheinungsjahr
2012
Zeitschriftentitel
Death Studies
Band
36
Ausgabe
2
Seite(n)
97-117
ISSN
0748-1187
eISSN
1091-7683
Page URI
https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2493260

Zitieren

Schaal S, Dusingizemungu J-P, Jacob N, Neuner F, Elbert T. Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies. 2012;36(2):97-117.
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J. - P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2012). Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies, 36(2), 97-117. doi:10.1080/07481187.2011.573177
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J. - P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., and Elbert, T. (2012). Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies 36, 97-117.
Schaal, S., et al., 2012. Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies, 36(2), p 97-117.
S. Schaal, et al., “Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors”, Death Studies, vol. 36, 2012, pp. 97-117.
Schaal, S., Dusingizemungu, J.-P., Jacob, N., Neuner, F., Elbert, T.: Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors. Death Studies. 36, 97-117 (2012).
Schaal, Susanne, Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre, Jacob, Nadja, Neuner, Frank, and Elbert, Thomas. “Associations Between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors”. Death Studies 36.2 (2012): 97-117.

4 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

A systematic review and meta-analysis of correlates of prolonged grief disorder in adults exposed to violent loss.
Heeke C, Kampisiou C, Niemeyer H, Knaevelsrud C., Eur J Psychotraumatol 10(1), 2019
PMID: 30949303
Day patient treatment for traumatic grief: preliminary evaluation of a one-year treatment programme for patients with multiple and traumatic losses.
de Heus A, Hengst SMC, de la Rie SM, Djelantik AAAMJ, Boelen PA, Smid GE., Eur J Psychotraumatol 8(1), 2017
PMID: 29038679
Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.
Smid GE, Kleber RJ, de la Rie SM, Bos JB, Gersons BP, Boelen PA., Eur J Psychotraumatol 6(), 2015
PMID: 26154434
The prevalence, comorbidity and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved Chinese adults.
He L, Tang S, Yu W, Xu W, Xie Q, Wang J., Psychiatry Res 219(2), 2014
PMID: 24924526

47 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.


AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0
Gender differences in the effects of bereavement-related psychological distress in health outcomes.
Chen JH, Bierhals AJ, Prigerson HG, Kasl SV, Mazure CM, Jacobs S., Psychol Med 29(2), 1999
PMID: 10218927
The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory.
Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L., Behav Sci 19(1), 1974
PMID: 4808738
Confirming the distinctiveness of complicated grief from depression and anxiety among adolescents.
Dillen L, Fontaine JR, Verhofstadt-Deneve L., Death Stud 33(5), 2009
PMID: 19469074
Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children.
Dyregrov A, Gupta L, Gjestad R, Mukanoheli E., J Trauma Stress 13(1), 2000
PMID: 10761171
Validation of a mental health assessment in an African conflict population.
Ertl V, Pfeiffer A, Saile R, Schauer E, Elbert T, Neuner F., Psychol Assess 22(2), 2010
PMID: 20528059
Children who witness the homicide of a parent.
Eth S, Pynoos RS., Psychiatry 57(4), 1994
PMID: 7899524

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0

Hogan, Omega: The Journal of Death and Dying 48(), 2004
Diagnostic criteria for complicated grief disorder.
Horowitz MJ, Siegel B, Holen A, Bonanno GA, Milbrath C, Stinson CH., Am J Psychiatry 154(7), 1997
PMID: 9210739
Complicated grief after traumatic loss: a 14-month follow up study.
Kersting A, Kroker K, Steinhard J, Ludorff K, Wesselmann U, Ohrmann P, Arolt V, Suslow T., Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 257(8), 2007
PMID: 17629729
Pathologic grief and its relationship to other psychiatric disorders.
Kim K, Jacobs S., J Affect Disord 21(4), 1991
PMID: 1829747
Detecting depressive disorder with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 in Tanzania.
Lee B, Kaaya SF, Mbwambo JK, Smith-Fawzi MC, Leshabari MT., Int J Soc Psychiatry 54(1), 2008
PMID: 18309755
Psychotherapy with survivors of the Beverly Hills Supper Club fire.
Lindy JD, Green BL, Grace M, Titchener J., Am J Psychother 37(4), 1983
PMID: 6660344
Traumatic grief among adolescents exposed to a peer's suicide.
Melhem NM, Day N, Shear MK, Day R, Reynolds CF 3rd, Brent D., Am J Psychiatry 161(8), 2004
PMID: 15285967
Phenomenology and correlates of complicated grief in children and adolescents.
Melhem NM, Moritz G, Walker M, Shear MK, Brent D., J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 46(4), 2007
PMID: 17420684
Indochinese versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25: a screening instrument for the psychiatric care of refugees.
Mollica RF, Wyshak G, de Marneffe D, Khuon F, Lavelle J., Am J Psychiatry 144(4), 1987
PMID: 3565621
Complicated grief in Bosnian refugees: associations with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression.
Momartin S, Silove D, Manicavasagar V, Steel Z., Compr Psychiatry 45(6), 2004
PMID: 15526259
Prevalence and psychological correlates of complicated grief among bereaved adults 2.5-3.5 years after September 11th attacks.
Neria Y, Gross R, Litz B, Maguen S, Insel B, Seirmarco G, Rosenfeld H, Suh EJ, Kishon R, Cook J, Marshall RD., J Trauma Stress 20(3), 2007
PMID: 17597124
Acute open-trial nortriptyline therapy of bereavement-related depression in late life.
Pasternak RE, Reynolds CF 3rd, Schlernitzauer M, Hoch CC, Buysse DJ, Houck PR, Perel JM., J Clin Psychiatry 52(7), 1991
PMID: 2071562
Traumatic grief in a convenience sample of victims seeking support services after a terrorist incident.
Pfefferbaum B, Call JA, Lensgraf SJ, Miller PD, Flynn BW, Doughty DE, Tucker P, Dickson WL., Ann Clin Psychiatry 13(1), 2001
PMID: 11465681
Unresolved grief in combat veterans with PTSD.
Pivar IL, Field NP., J Anxiety Disord 18(6), 2004
PMID: 15474850
Complicated grief as a disorder distinct from bereavement-related depression and anxiety: a replication study.
Prigerson HG, Bierhals AJ, Kasl SV, Reynolds CF 3rd, Shear MK, Newsom JT, Jacobs S., Am J Psychiatry 153(11), 1996
PMID: 8890686
Prolonged grief disorder: Psychometric validation of criteria proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11.
Prigerson HG, Horowitz MJ, Jacobs SC, Parkes CM, Aslan M, Goodkin K, Raphael B, Marwit SJ, Wortman C, Neimeyer RA, Bonanno GA, Bonanno G, Block SD, Kissane D, Boelen P, Maercker A, Litz BT, Johnson JG, First MB, Maciejewski PK., PLoS Med. 6(8), 2009
PMID: 19652695
Consensus criteria for traumatic grief. A preliminary empirical test.
Prigerson HG, Shear MK, Jacobs SC, Reynolds CF 3rd, Maciejewski PK, Davidson JR, Rosenheck R, Pilkonis PA, Wortman CB, Williams JB, Widiger TA, Frank E, Kupfer DJ, Zisook S., Br J Psychiatry 174(), 1999
PMID: 10211154

Prigerson, 2008

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0
Treatment of bereavement-related major depressive episodes in later life: a controlled study of acute and continuation treatment with nortriptyline and interpersonal psychotherapy.
Reynolds CF 3rd, Miller MD, Pasternak RE, Frank E, Perel JM, Cornes C, Houck PR, Mazumdar S, Dew MA, Kupfer DJ., Am J Psychiatry 156(2), 1999
PMID: 9989555

Rubin, 2008
Bereavement after homicide: a synergism of trauma and loss.
Rynearson EK, McCreery JM., Am J Psychiatry 150(2), 1993
PMID: 8422076
Prolonged grief disorder and depression in widows due to the Rwandan genocide.
Schaal S, Elbert T, Neuner F., Omega (Westport) 59(3), 2009
PMID: 19791517
Rates and risks for prolonged grief disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors.
Schaal S, Jacob N, Dusingizemungu JP, Elbert T., BMC Psychiatry 10(), 2010
PMID: 20604936

Schut, Anxiety Research 4(), 1991

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 0
The prevalence and correlates of psychiatric comorbidity in individuals with complicated grief.
Simon NM, Shear KM, Thompson EH, Zalta AK, Perlman C, Reynolds CF, Frank E, Melhem NM, Silowash R., Compr Psychiatry 48(5), 2007
PMID: 17707245
The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) detects changes in depressive symptoms after a major negative life event. The Leiden 85-plus Study.
Vinkers DJ, Gussekloo J, Stek ML, Westendorp RG, Van Der Mast RC., Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19(1), 2004
PMID: 14716703
Symptoms of emotional distress in a family planning service: stability over a four-week period.
Winokur A, Winokur DF, Rickels K, Cox DS., Br J Psychiatry 144(), 1984
PMID: 6722401

Export

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

Quellen

PMID: 24567983
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar