Deduction without awareness

Reverberi C, Pischedda D, Burigo M, Cherubini P (2011)
Acta Psychologica 139(1): 244-253.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Es wurden keine Dateien hochgeladen. Nur Publikationsnachweis!
Reverberi, Carlo; Pischedda, Doris; Burigo, MicheleUniBi ; Cherubini, Paolo
Abstract / Bemerkung
We investigated whether two basic forms of deductive inference, Modus Ponens and Disjunctive Syllogism, occur automatically and without awareness. In Experiment 1, we used a priming paradigm with a set of conditional and disjunctive problems. For each trial, two premises were shown. The second premise was presented at a rate designed to be undetectable. After each problem, participants had to evaluate whether a newly-presented target number was odd or even. The target number matched or did not match a conclu- sion endorsed by the two previous premises. We found that when the target matched the conclusion of a Modus Ponens inference, the evaluation of the target number was reliably faster than baseline even when participants reported that they were not aware of the second premise. This priming effect did not occur for any other valid or invalid inference that we tested, including the Disjunctive Syllogism. In Experiment 2, we used a forced-choice paradigm in which we found that some participants were able to access some in- formation on the second premise when their attention was explicitly directed to it. In Experiment 3, we showed that the priming effect for Modus Ponens was present also in subjects who could not access any information about P2. In Experiment 4 we explored whether spatial relations (e.g., “a before b”) or sen- tences with quantifiers (e.g., “all a with b”) could generate a priming effect similar to the one observed for Modus Ponens. A priming effect could be found for Modus Ponens only, but not for the other relations tested. These findings show that the Modus Ponens inference, in contrast to other deductive inferences, can be carried out automatically and unconsciously. Furthermore, our findings suggest that critical deduc- tive inference schemata can be included in the range of high-level cognitive activities that are carried out unconsciously.
Acta Psychologica
Page URI


Reverberi C, Pischedda D, Burigo M, Cherubini P. Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica. 2011;139(1):244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., & Cherubini, P. (2011). Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica, 139(1), 244-253.
Reverberi, Carlo, Pischedda, Doris, Burigo, Michele, and Cherubini, Paolo. 2011. “Deduction without awareness”. Acta Psychologica 139 (1): 244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., and Cherubini, P. (2011). Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica 139, 244-253.
Reverberi, C., et al., 2011. Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica, 139(1), p 244-253.
C. Reverberi, et al., “Deduction without awareness”, Acta Psychologica, vol. 139, 2011, pp. 244-253.
Reverberi, C., Pischedda, D., Burigo, M., Cherubini, P.: Deduction without awareness. Acta Psychologica. 139, 244-253 (2011).
Reverberi, Carlo, Pischedda, Doris, Burigo, Michele, and Cherubini, Paolo. “Deduction without awareness”. Acta Psychologica 139.1 (2011): 244-253.

7 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Precursors of logical reasoning in preverbal human infants.
Cesana-Arlotti N, Martín A, Téglás E, Vorobyova L, Cetnarski R, Bonatti LL., Science 359(6381), 2018
PMID: 29590076
Working memory in healthy aging and in Parkinson's disease: evidence of interference effects.
Di Rosa E, Pischedda D, Cherubini P, Mapelli D, Tamburin S, Burigo M., Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 24(3), 2017
PMID: 27362220
Nothing new under the sun, or the moon, or both.
Bonatti LL, Cherubini P, Reverberi C., Front Hum Neurosci 9(), 2015
PMID: 26578932

35 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Mental logic
Braine, 1998
Suppressing valid inferences with conditionals.
Byrne RM., Cognition 31(1), 1989
PMID: 2706921
Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing: a testable taxonomy.
Dehaene S, Changeux JP, Naccache L, Sackur J, Sergent C., Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 10(5), 2006
PMID: 16603406
Unconscious semantic priming from pictures.
Dell'Acqua R, Grainger J., Cognition 73(1), 1999
PMID: 10536225
Replicable unconscious semantic priming.
Draine SC, Greenwald AG., J Exp Psychol Gen 127(3), 1998
PMID: 9742717
Individual differences in trait anxiety predict the response of the basolateral amygdala to unconsciously processed fearful faces.
Etkin A, Klemenhagen KC, Dudman JT, Rogan MT, Hen R, Kandel ER, Hirsch J., Neuron 44(6), 2004
PMID: 15603746

Evans, 1993
Anatomy of deductive reasoning.
Goel V., Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 11(10), 2007
PMID: 17913567
New look 3. Unconscious cognition reclaimed.
Greenwald AG., Am Psychol 47(6), 1992
PMID: 1616174
On the nature of mental models of conditional: The case of if, if then, and only if
Grosset, Thinking and Reasoning 9(), 2003
Logic, beliefs, and instruction: a test of the default interventionist account of belief bias.
Handley SJ, Newstead SE, Trippas D., J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 37(1), 2011
PMID: 21058879

Johnson-Laird, 2006

Johnson-Laird, 1991
Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: A critical review of visual masking
Kouider, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 362(), 2007
On-line evidence for elaborative logical inferences in text.
Lea RB., J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 21(6), 1995
PMID: 7490577
Unconscious semantic priming extends to novel unseen stimuli.
Naccache L, Dehaene S., Cognition 80(3), 2001
PMID: 11274983
Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited-capacity attention
Neely, Journal of Experimental Psychology. General 106(), 1977
Individual differences in deductive reasoning.
Newstead SE, Handley SJ, Harley C, Wright H, Farrelly D., Q J Exp Psychol A 57(1), 2004
PMID: 14681003
Signal-driven computations in speech processing.
Pena M, Bonatti LL, Nespor M, Mehler J., Science 298(5593), 2002
PMID: 12202684
How the brain translates money into force: a neuroimaging study of subliminal motivation.
Pessiglione M, Schmidt L, Draganski B, Kalisch R, Lau H, Dolan RJ, Frith CD., Science 316(5826), 2007
PMID: 17431137
Processing of logically valid and logically invalid conditional inferences in discourse comprehension.
Rader AW, Sloutsky VM., J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 28(1), 2002
PMID: 11827087
Large scale brain activations predict reasoning profiles.
Reverberi C, Bonatti LL, Frackowiak RS, Paulesu E, Cherubini P, Macaluso E., Neuroimage 59(2), 2011
PMID: 21888981
Conditional and syllogistic deductive tasks dissociate functionally during premise integration.
Reverberi C, Cherubini P, Frackowiak RS, Caltagirone C, Paulesu E, Macaluso E., Hum Brain Mapp 31(9), 2010
PMID: 20112243
Cortical bases of elementary deductive reasoning: inference, memory, and metadeduction.
Reverberi C, Shallice T, D'Agostini S, Skrap M, Bonatti LL., Neuropsychologia 47(4), 2009
PMID: 19166867
Rips, 1988

Rips, 1994
Measuring consciousness: relating behavioural and neurophysiological approaches.
Seth AK, Dienes Z, Cleeremans A, Overgaard M, Pessoa L., Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.) 12(8), 2008
PMID: 18606562
Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain.
Soon CS, Brass M, Heinze HJ, Haynes JD., Nat. Neurosci. 11(5), 2008
PMID: 18408715
Deduction from uncertain premises
Stevenson, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. A, Human Experimental Psychology 48A(), 1995

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

PMID: 22019058
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar