The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets
A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition Omega(Tc)/Tc>1, where Omega=(v^2+(x-x0)^2)^(1/2) and x (x0) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition vc/Tc>1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs.
Bielefeld University
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