The QCD equation of state with almost physical quark masses
We present results on the equation of state in QCD with two light quark flavors and a heavier strange quark. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed on lattices with temporal extent Nt =4 and 6 on a line of constant physics with almost physical quark mass values/ the pion mass is about 220 MeV, and the strange quark mass is adjusted to its physical value. High statistics results on large lattices are obtained for bulk thermodynamic observables, i.e. pressure, energy and entropy density, at vanishing quark chemical potential for a wide range of temperatures, 140 MeV < T < 800 MeV. We present a detailed discussion of finite cut-off effects which become particularly significant for temperatures larger than about twice the transition temperature. At these high temperatures we also performed calculations of the trace anomaly on lattices with temporal extent Nt=8. Furthermore, we have performed an extensive analysis of zero temperature observables including the light and strange quark condensates and the static quark potential at zero temperature. These are used to set the temperature scale for thermodynamic observables and to calculate renormalized observables that are sensitive to deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration and become order parameters in the infinite and zero quark mass limits, respectively.
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American Physical Society (APS)