Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

Wolf JBW, Tautz D, Trillmich F (2007)
Frontiers in Zoology 4(1): 20.

Download
OA
Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
Volltext vorhanden für diesen Nachweis
Autor
; ;
Abstract / Bemerkung
Background: Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL). Results: Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion: Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki), the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus) as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.
Erscheinungsjahr
Zeitschriftentitel
Frontiers in Zoology
Band
4
Ausgabe
1
Art.-Nr.
20
ISSN
PUB-ID

Zitieren

Wolf JBW, Tautz D, Trillmich F. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology. 2007;4(1): 20.
Wolf, J. B. W., Tautz, D., & Trillmich, F. (2007). Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology, 4(1), 20. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-20
Wolf, J. B. W., Tautz, D., and Trillmich, F. (2007). Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology 4:20.
Wolf, J.B.W., Tautz, D., & Trillmich, F., 2007. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology, 4(1): 20.
J.B.W. Wolf, D. Tautz, and F. Trillmich, “Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management”, Frontiers in Zoology, vol. 4, 2007, : 20.
Wolf, J.B.W., Tautz, D., Trillmich, F.: Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology. 4, : 20 (2007).
Wolf, Jochen B. W., Tautz, Diethard, and Trillmich, Fritz. “Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management”. Frontiers in Zoology 4.1 (2007): 20.
Alle Dateien verfügbar unter der/den folgenden Lizenz(en):
Copyright Statement:
This Item is protected by copyright and/or related rights. [...]
Volltext(e)
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen
2016-10-18T09:49:53Z

11 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

No evidence for clonal transmission of urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus).
Ní Leathlobhair M, Gulland FMD, Murchison EP., Wellcome Open Res 2(), 2017
PMID: 28948233
Foraging strategies of a generalist marine predator inhabiting a dynamic environment.
McHuron EA, Robinson PW, Simmons SE, Kuhn CE, Fowler M, Costa DP., Oecologia 182(4), 2016
PMID: 27651228
Fine-scale matrilineal population structure in the Galapagos fur seal and its implications for conservation management
Lopes F, Hoffman JI, Valiati VH, Bonatto SL, Wolf JBW, Trillmich F, Oliveira LR., Conserv Genet 16(5), 2015
PMID: IND604394511
Context-dependent associations between heterozygosity and immune variation in a wild carnivore.
Brock PM, Goodman SJ, Hall AJ, Cruz M, Acevedo-Whitehouse K., BMC Evol Biol 15(), 2015
PMID: 26537228
Taxonomic uncertainty and the loss of biodiversity on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean.
Eldridge MD, Meek PD, Johnson RN., Conserv Biol 28(2), 2014
PMID: 24283832
Microbes, metagenomes and marine mammals: enabling the next generation of scientist to enter the genomic era.
Edwards RA, Haggerty JM, Cassman N, Busch JC, Aguinaldo K, Chinta S, Vaughn MH, Morey R, Harkins TT, Teiling C, Fredrikson K, Dinsdale EA., BMC Genomics 14(), 2013
PMID: 24007365
What's in a name; genetic structure in Solanum section Petota studied using population-genetic tools.
Jacobs MM, Smulders MJ, van den Berg RG, Vosman B., BMC Evol Biol 11(), 2011
PMID: 21310063
Pinniped phylogenetic relationships inferred using AFLP markers.
Dasmahapatra KK, Hoffman JI, Amos W., Heredity (Edinb) 103(2), 2009
PMID: 19277054
Tracing early stages of species differentiation: ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations.
Wolf JB, Harrod C, Brunner S, Salazar S, Trillmich F, Tautz D., BMC Evol Biol 8(), 2008
PMID: 18485220

59 References

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology.
Crandall KA, Bininda-Emonds OR, Mace GM, Wayne RK., Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.) 15(7), 2000
PMID: 10856956
The Effects of El Niño on Galapagos Pinnipeds
Trillmich F, Dellinger T., 1991
Galapagos sea lion massacre
Salazar S, Edgar G., 2001

Danulat E, Edgar GJ., 2002
Le statut actuel des vertebres rares et menaces de l'archipel des Galapagos
Lévèque R., 1963
Galápagos sea lions and fur seals
Trillmich F., 1979

Salazar SK., 1999
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2004
US Marine Mammal Stock Assessments
Carretta JV, Forney KA, Muto MM, Barlow J, Baker J, Hanson B, Lowry MS., 2005
California, Galapagos, and Japanese Sea Lions
Heath CB., 2002
A new species of sea lion, , from the Galapagos Islands
Sivertsen E., 1953

Scheffer VB., 1958
Males in the shade: habitat use and sexual segregation in the Galápagos sea lion ()
Wolf JBW, Kauermann G, Trillmich F., 2005
Effects of the 1997–1998 El Niño on population size and diet of the Galápagos sea lion (
Salazar S, Bustamante RH., 2003
Phylogenetic relationships within the eared seals (Otariidae: Carnivora): implications for the historical biogeography of the family.
Wynen LP, Goldsworthy SD, Insley SJ, Adams M, Bickham JW, Francis J, Gallo JP, Hoelzel AR, Majluf P, White RW, Slade R., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 21(2), 2001
PMID: 11697921
Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal.
Arnason U, Gullberg A, Janke A, Kullberg M, Lehman N, Petrov EA, Vainola R., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 41(2), 2006
PMID: 16815048

Berta A, Sumich JL, Kovacs KM., 2006

Riedmann M., 1990

Reynolds JE, Rommel SA., 1999

Rice DW., 1998
Understanding and confronting species uncertainty in biology and conservation
Hey J, Waples RS, Arnold ML, Butlin RK, Harrison RG., 2003
On the failure of modern species concepts.
Hey J., Trends Ecol. Evol. (Amst.) 21(8), 2006
PMID: 16762447
Fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae): identification of species and taxonomic review
Brunner S., 2003
New cranial material of the Japanese sea lion, (Peters, 1866)
Itoo T., 1985
Ethologische Studien am Galapagos-Seelöwen, (Sivertsen)
Eibl-Eibesfeldt I., 1955
The Galápagos seals part 1. Natural history of the Galápagos Sea Lion (
Eibl-Eibesfeldt I., 1984
Taxonomy as destiny
May RM., 1990
A comparison of genetic divdersity between the Galápagos Penguin and the Magellanic Penguin
Akst EP, Boersma DP, Fleischer RC., 2002
Inbreeding: Disease susceptibility in California sea lions.
Acevedo-Whitehouse K, Gulland F, Greig D, Amos W., Nature 422(6927), 2003
PMID: 12621424
Intraspecific genetic differentiation in California sea lions () from Southern California and the Gulf of California
Maldonado JE, Davila FO, Stewart BS, Geffen E, Wayne RK., 1995
MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment.
Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M., Brief. Bioinformatics 5(2), 2004
PMID: 15260895
MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.
Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP., Bioinformatics 19(12), 2003
PMID: 12912839
The "Phoca standard": an external molecular reference for calibrating recent evolutionary divergences.
Arnason U, Xu X, Gullberg A, Graur D., J. Mol. Evol. 43(1), 1996
PMID: 8660422

AUTHOR UNKNOWN, 2006
Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies.
Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Rohl A., Mol. Biol. Evol. 16(1), 1999
PMID: 10331250
Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies.
Huson DH, Bryant D., Mol. Biol. Evol. 23(2), 2005
PMID: 16221896
Parent-offspring and sibling conflict in Galápagos fur seals and sea lions
Trillmich F, Wolf JBW., 0
Bayesian analysis of genetic differentiation between populations.
Corander J, Waldmann P, Sillanpaa MJ., Genetics 163(1), 2003
PMID: 12586722
ESTIMATING F-STATISTICS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION STRUCTURE.
Weir BS, Cockerham CC., Evolution 38(6), 1984
PMID: 28563791
FSTAT: a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3)
Goudet J., 2001
R-ST Calc: a collection of computer programs for calculating estimates of genetic differentiation from microsatellite data and determining their significance
Goodman SJ., 1997

Minch E, Ruiz-Linares A, Goldstein DB, Feldman M, Cavalli-Sforza LL., 0
PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.6
Felsenstein J., 2004
Testing differentiation in diploid populations.
Goudet J, Raymond M, de Meeus T, Rousset F., Genetics 144(4), 1996
PMID: 8978076
BOTTLENECK: A computer program for detecting recent reductions in the effective population size using allele frequency data
Piry S, Luikart G, Cornuet JM., 1999
Development of new microsatellite loci and evaluation of loci from other pinniped species for the Galápagos sea lion ()
Wolf JBW, Tautz D, Caccone A, Steinfartz S., 2006
Comparative analysis of human DNA variations by fluorescence-based sequencing of PCR products.
Kwok PY, Carlson C, Yager TD, Ankener W, Nickerson DA., Genomics 23(1), 1994
PMID: 7829062
New polymorphic microsatellite markers for California sea lions ()
Hernandez-Velazquez FD, Galindo-Sanchez CE, Taylor MI, de J, Cote IM, Schramm Y, Aurioles-Gamboa D, Rico C., 2005

Export

Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®

Quellen

PMID: 17868473
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar