On the correlation of binary sequences
Ahlswede, Rudolf
Ahlswede
Rudolf
Cassaigne, J.
Cassaigne
J.
Sarközy, Andras
Sarközy
Andras
In a series of papers Mauduit and Sarkozy (partly with further coauthors) studied finite pseudorandom binary sequences. In particular, one of the most important applications of pseudorandomness is cryptography. If, e.g., we want to use a binary sequence E-N is an element of {-1, +1}(N) (after transforming it into a bit sequence) as a key stream in the standard Vernam cipher [A. Menezes, P van Oorschot, R. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1997], then E-N must possess certain pseudorandom properties. Does E-N need to possess both small well-distribution measure and, for any fixed small k, small correlation measure of order k? In other words, if W (E-N) is large, resp. C-k(E-N) is large for some fixed small k, then can the enemy utilize this fact to break the code? The most natural line of attack is the exhaustive search: the attacker may try all the binary sequences E-N is an element of {-1, +1}(N) with large W (E-N), resp. large C-k(E-N), as a potential key stream. Clearly, this attack is really threatening only if the number of sequences E-N is an element of {-1, +1}(N) with (i) large W (E-N), resp. (ii) large C-k(E-N) is "much less" than the total number 2(N) of sequences in {-1, +1}(N), besides one needs a fast algorithm to generate the sequences of type (i), resp. (ii). The case (i) is easy, thus, for the sake of completeness, here we just present an estimate for the number of sequences E-N with large W(E-N). The case (ii), i.e., the case of large correlation is much more interesting: this case will be studied in Section 2. In Section 3 we will sharpen the results of Section 2 in the special case when the order of the correlation is 2. Finally, in Section 4 we will study a lemma, which plays a crucial role in the estimation of the correlation in some of the most important constructions of pseudorandom binary sequences. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
156
9
1478-1487
1478-1487
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
2008