Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task

Kuehl LK, Wolf OT, Driessen M, Schlosser N, Fernando S, Wingenfeld K (2017)
JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 92: 191-198.

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Mood congruent alterations in information processing such as an impaired memory bias for emotional information and impaired inhibitory functions are prominent features of a major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, in MDD patients hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunctions are frequently found. Impairing effects of stress or cortisol administration on memory retrieval as well as impairing stress effects on cognitive inhibition are well documented in healthy participants. In MDD patients, no effect of acute cortisol administration on memory retrieval was found. The current study investigated the effect of acute cortisol administration on memory bias in MDD patients (N = 55) and healthy controls (N = 63) using the Directed Forgetting (DF) task with positive, negative and neutral words in a placebo controlled, double blind design. After oral administration of 10 mg hydrocortisone/placebo, the item method of the DF task was conducted. Memory performance was tested with a free recall test. Cortisol was not found to have an effect on the results of the DF task. Interestingly, there was significant impact of valence: both groups showed the highest DF score for positive words and remembered significantly more positive words that were supposed to be remembered and significantly more negative words that were supposed to be forgotten. In general, healthy participants remembered more words than the depressed patients. Still, the depressed patients were able to inhibit intentionally irrelevant information at a comparable level as the healthy controls. These results demonstrate the importance to distinguish in experimental designs between different cognitive domains such as inhibition and memory in our study. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Kuehl LK, Wolf OT, Driessen M, Schlosser N, Fernando S, Wingenfeld K. Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH. 2017;92:191-198.
Kuehl, L. K., Wolf, O. T., Driessen, M., Schlosser, N., Fernando, S., & Wingenfeld, K. (2017). Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, 92, 191-198. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.04.012
Kuehl, L. K., Wolf, O. T., Driessen, M., Schlosser, N., Fernando, S., and Wingenfeld, K. (2017). Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 92, 191-198.
Kuehl, L.K., et al., 2017. Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, 92, p 191-198.
L.K. Kuehl, et al., “Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task”, JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, vol. 92, 2017, pp. 191-198.
Kuehl, L.K., Wolf, O.T., Driessen, M., Schlosser, N., Fernando, S., Wingenfeld, K.: Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH. 92, 191-198 (2017).
Kuehl, Linn K., Wolf, Oliver T., Driessen, Martin, Schlosser, Nicole, Fernando, Silvia, and Wingenfeld, Katja. “Effects of cortisol on the memory bias for emotional words? A study in patients with depression and healthy participants using the Directed Forgetting task”. JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH 92 (2017): 191-198.
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