Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults

Ezzati M, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, Bilano V, Bixby H, Zhou B, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Taddei C, Hajifathalian K, Lu Y, et al. (2017)
LANCET 390(10113): 2627-2642.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128.9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31.5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0.01 kg/m (2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0.42 to 0.39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease= 0.5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1.00 kg/m(2) per decade (0.69-1.35, PP> 0.9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0.95 kg/m (2) per decade (0.64-1.25, PP> 0.9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0.09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0.33 to 0.49, PP= 0.6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0.77 kg/m (2) per decade (0.50-1.06, PP> 0.9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0.7% (0.4-1.2) in 1975 to 5.6% (4.8-6.5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0.9% (0.5-1.3) in 1975 to 7.8% (6.7-9.1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9.2% (6.0-12.9) in 1975 to 8.4% (6.8-10.1) in 2016 in girls and from 14.8% (10.4-19.5) in 1975 to 12.4% (10.3-14.5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22.7% (16.7-29.6) among girls and 30.7% (23.5-38.0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.
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Zeitschriftentitel
LANCET
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390
Zeitschriftennummer
10113
Seite
2627-2642
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Ezzati M, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. LANCET. 2017;390(10113):2627-2642.
Ezzati, M., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bilano, V., Bixby, H., Zhou, B., Stevens, G. A., et al. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. LANCET, 390(10113), 2627-2642. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
Ezzati, M., Bentham, J., Di Cesare, M., Bilano, V., Bixby, H., Zhou, B., Stevens, G. A., Riley, L. M., Taddei, C., Hajifathalian, K., et al. (2017). Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. LANCET 390, 2627-2642.
Ezzati, M., et al., 2017. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. LANCET, 390(10113), p 2627-2642.
M. Ezzati, et al., “Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults”, LANCET, vol. 390, 2017, pp. 2627-2642.
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Fat Mass Follows a U-Shaped Distribution Based on Estradiol Levels in Postmenopausal Women.
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Exercise training in overweight and obese children: Recreational football and high-intensity interval training provide similar benefits to physical fitness.
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Characterization of fibroblast growth factor 1 in obese children and adolescents.
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Is there an association between early weight status and utility-based health-related quality of life in young children?
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Metabolic fingerprint of insulin resistance in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
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Ethnic Disparities in Gestational Diabetes.
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Acting on non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income tropical countries.
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Data Resource Profile: Danish Conscription Registry Data (DCRD).
Christensen GT, Skogstad S, Nissen LR, Osler M., Int J Epidemiol 47(4), 2018
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Cardiorespiratory fitness in children: Evidence for criterion-referenced cut-points.
Silva DAS, Lang JJ, Barnes JD, Tomkinson GR, Tremblay MS., PLoS One 13(8), 2018
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Inconsistent Weight Communication Among Prenatal Healthcare Providers and Patients: A Narrative Review.
Weeks A, Liu RH, Ferraro ZM, Deonandan R, Adamo KB., Obstet Gynecol Surv 73(8), 2018
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Excess body weight, weight gain and obesity-related cancer risk in women in Norway: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.
da Silva M, Weiderpass E, Licaj I, Lissner L, Rylander C., Br J Cancer 119(5), 2018
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Characterization of fibroblast growth factor 1 in obese children and adolescents
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Increased Muscle Mass Protects Against Hypertension and Renal Injury in Obesity.
Butcher JT, Mintz JD, Larion S, Qiu S, Ruan L, Fulton DJ, Stepp DW., J Am Heart Assoc 7(16), 2018
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Regional Variations in Physical Fitness and Activity in Healthy and Overweight Ecuadorian Adolescents.
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Adipokine dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity.
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Association between population mean and distribution of deviance in demographic surveys from 65 countries: cross sectional study.
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Maternal Lipid Concentrations during Early Pregnancy and Eating Behaviour and Energy Intake in the Offspring.
Dieberger AM, de Rooij SR, Korosi A, Vrijkotte TGM., Nutrients 10(8), 2018
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How and why weight stigma drives the obesity 'epidemic' and harms health.
Tomiyama AJ, Carr D, Granberg EM, Major B, Robinson E, Sutin AR, Brewis A., BMC Med 16(1), 2018
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Interaction between Parental Education and Household Wealth on Children's Obesity Risk.
Liu Y, Ma Y, Jiang N, Song S, Fan Q, Wen D., Int J Environ Res Public Health 15(8), 2018
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Associations between activity patterns and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents: A systematic review.
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Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain.
Delezie J, Handschin C., Front Neurol 9(), 2018
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Nutritional Deficiencies in Severe Obesity: a Multiethnic Asian Cohort.
Lee PC, Ganguly S, Dixon JB, Tan HC, Lim CH, Tham KW., Obes Surg (), 2018
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Incidence and trend of type 1 diabetes and the underlying environmental determinants.
Xia Y, Xie Z, Huang G, Zhou Z., Diabetes Metab Res Rev (), 2018
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Increased serum concentration of ceramides in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Wasilewska N, Bobrus-Chociej A, Harasim-Symbor E, Tarasów E, Wojtkowska M, Chabowski A, Lebensztejn DM., Lipids Health Dis 17(1), 2018
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Cohort Profile: The Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) study: a population-based study.
Figueiredo RAO, Simola-Ström S, Rounge TB, Viljakainen H, Eriksson JG, Roos E, Weiderpass E., Int J Epidemiol (), 2018
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Continuous cardiometabolic risk score definitions in early childhood: a scoping review.
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Adiposity in Adolescents: The Interplay of Sleep Duration and Sleep Variability.
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Effect of A Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Food and Alcohol Cravings, Physical and Sexual Activity, Sleep Disturbances, and Quality of Life in Obese Patients.
Castro AI, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Crujeiras AB, Granero R, Aguera Z, Jimenez-Murcia S, Sajoux I, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Fernandez-Aranda F, Casanueva FF., Nutrients 10(10), 2018
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Revisiting the evolutionary origins of obesity: lazy versus peppy-thrifty genotype hypothesis.
Reddon H, Patel Y, Turcotte M, Pigeyre M, Meyre D., Obes Rev 19(11), 2018
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Association of body mass index and age with incident diabetes in Chinese adults: a population-based cohort study.
Chen Y, Zhang XP, Yuan J, Cai B, Wang XL, Wu XL, Zhang YH, Zhang XY, Yin T, Zhu XH, Gu YJ, Cui SW, Lu ZQ, Li XY., BMJ Open 8(9), 2018
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Nuclear Receptors: Opening Up New Avenues of Pediatric Fatty Liver Research.
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Genes that make you fat, but keep you healthy.
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Will my patient survive? Look for creatinine in the urine!
Darmon M, Kashani K, Schetz M., Intensive Care Med 44(11), 2018
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