Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4?

Gowik U, Bräutigam A, Weber KL, Weber APM, Westhoff P (2011)
Plant Cell 23(6): 2087-2105.

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Abstract
Selective pressure exerted by a massive decline in atmospheric CO2 levels 55 to 40 million years ago promoted the evolution of a novel, highly efficient mode of photosynthetic carbon assimilation known as C-4 photosynthesis. C-4 species have concurrently evolved multiple times in a broad range of plant families, and this multiple and parallel evolution of the complex C-4 trait indicates a common underlying evolutionary mechanism that might be elucidated by comparative analyses of related C-3 and C-4 species. Here, we use mRNA-Seq analysis of five species within the genus Flaveria, ranging from C-3 to C-3-C-4 intermediate to C-4 species, to quantify the differences in the transcriptomes of closely related plant species with varying degrees of C-4-associated characteristics. Single gene analysis defines the C-4 cycle enzymes and transporters more precisely and provides new candidates for yet unknown functions as well as identifies C-4 associated pathways. Molecular evidence for a photorespiratory CO2 pump prior to the establishment of the C-4 cycle-based CO2 pump is provided. Cluster analysis defines the upper limit of C-4-related gene expression changes in mature leaves of Flaveria as 3582 alterations.
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Gowik U, Bräutigam A, Weber KL, Weber APM, Westhoff P. Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4? Plant Cell. 2011;23(6):2087-2105.
Gowik, U., Bräutigam, A., Weber, K. L., Weber, A. P. M., & Westhoff, P. (2011). Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4? Plant Cell, 23(6), 2087-2105. doi:10.1105/tpc.111.086264
Gowik, U., Bräutigam, A., Weber, K. L., Weber, A. P. M., and Westhoff, P. (2011). Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4? Plant Cell 23, 2087-2105.
Gowik, U., et al., 2011. Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4? Plant Cell, 23(6), p 2087-2105.
U. Gowik, et al., “Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4?”, Plant Cell, vol. 23, 2011, pp. 2087-2105.
Gowik, U., Bräutigam, A., Weber, K.L., Weber, A.P.M., Westhoff, P.: Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4? Plant Cell. 23, 2087-2105 (2011).
Gowik, Udo, Bräutigam, Andrea, Weber, Katrin L., Weber, Andreas P. M., and Westhoff, Peter. “Evolution of C-4 Photosynthesis in the Genus Flaveria: How Many and Which Genes Does It Take to Make C-4?”. Plant Cell 23.6 (2011): 2087-2105.
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