Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

Brouwer P, Bräutigam A, Külahoglu C, Tazelaar AOE, Kurz S, Nierop KGJ, van der Werf A, Weber APM, Schluepmann H (2014)
New Phytologist 202(3): 1069-1082.

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Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy.
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Brouwer P, Bräutigam A, Külahoglu C, et al. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy? New Phytologist. 2014;202(3):1069-1082.
Brouwer, P., Bräutigam, A., Külahoglu, C., Tazelaar, A. O. E., Kurz, S., Nierop, K. G. J., van der Werf, A., et al. (2014). Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy? New Phytologist, 202(3), 1069-1082. doi:10.1111/nph.12708
Brouwer, P., Bräutigam, A., Külahoglu, C., Tazelaar, A. O. E., Kurz, S., Nierop, K. G. J., van der Werf, A., Weber, A. P. M., and Schluepmann, H. (2014). Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy? New Phytologist 202, 1069-1082.
Brouwer, P., et al., 2014. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy? New Phytologist, 202(3), p 1069-1082.
P. Brouwer, et al., “Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?”, New Phytologist, vol. 202, 2014, pp. 1069-1082.
Brouwer, P., Bräutigam, A., Külahoglu, C., Tazelaar, A.O.E., Kurz, S., Nierop, K.G.J., van der Werf, A., Weber, A.P.M., Schluepmann, H.: Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy? New Phytologist. 202, 1069-1082 (2014).
Brouwer, Paul, Bräutigam, Andrea, Külahoglu, Canan, Tazelaar, Anne O. E., Kurz, Samantha, Nierop, Klaas G. J., van der Werf, Adrie, Weber, Andreas P. M., and Schluepmann, Henriette. “Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?”. New Phytologist 202.3 (2014): 1069-1082.
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PMID: 24494738
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