Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism

Christin P-A, Arakaki M, Osborne CP, Bräutigam A, Sage RF, Hibberd JM, Kelly S, Covshoff S, Wong GK-S, Hancock L, Edwards EJ (2014)
Journal of Experimental Botany 65(13): 3609-3621.

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Abstract
CAM and C-4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C-4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C-4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C-4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C-4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C-4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C-4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C-4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C-4 phenotypes.
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Christin P-A, Arakaki M, Osborne CP, et al. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2014;65(13):3609-3621.
Christin, P. - A., Arakaki, M., Osborne, C. P., Bräutigam, A., Sage, R. F., Hibberd, J. M., Kelly, S., et al. (2014). Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(13), 3609-3621. doi:10.1093/jxb/eru087
Christin, P. - A., Arakaki, M., Osborne, C. P., Bräutigam, A., Sage, R. F., Hibberd, J. M., Kelly, S., Covshoff, S., Wong, G. K. - S., Hancock, L., et al. (2014). Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany 65, 3609-3621.
Christin, P.-A., et al., 2014. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(13), p 3609-3621.
P.-A. Christin, et al., “Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism”, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 65, 2014, pp. 3609-3621.
Christin, P.-A., Arakaki, M., Osborne, C.P., Bräutigam, A., Sage, R.F., Hibberd, J.M., Kelly, S., Covshoff, S., Wong, G.K.-S., Hancock, L., Edwards, E.J.: Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism. Journal of Experimental Botany. 65, 3609-3621 (2014).
Christin, Pascal-Antoine, Arakaki, Monica, Osborne, Colin P., Bräutigam, Andrea, Sage, Rowan F., Hibberd, Julian M., Kelly, Steven, Covshoff, Sarah, Wong, Gane Ka-Shu, Hancock, Lillian, and Edwards, Erika J. “Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C-4 and CAM metabolism”. Journal of Experimental Botany 65.13 (2014): 3609-3621.
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