Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species

Bräutigam A, Schliesky S, Külahoglu C, Osborne CP, Weber APM (2014)
Journal of Experimental Botany 65(13): 3579-3593.

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Abstract
C-4 photosynthesis affords higher photosynthetic carbon conversion efficiency than C-3 photosynthesis and it therefore represents an attractive target for engineering efforts aiming to improve crop productivity. To this end, blueprints are required that reflect C-4 metabolism as closely as possible. Such blueprints have been derived from comparative transcriptome analyses of C-3 species with related C-4 species belonging to the NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and NADP-ME subgroups of C-4 photosynthesis. However, a comparison between C-3 and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP-CK) subtype of C-4 photosynthesis is still missing. An integrative analysis of all three C-4 subtypes has also not been possible to date, since no comparison has been available for closely related C-3 and PEP-CK C-4 species. To generate the data, the guinea grass Megathyrsus maximus, which represents a PEP-CK species, was analysed in comparison with a closely related C-3 sister species, Dichanthelium clandestinum, and with publicly available sets of RNA-Seq data from C-4 species belonging to the NAD-ME and NADP-ME subgroups. The data indicate that the core C-4 cycle of the PEP-CK grass M. maximus is quite similar to that of NAD-ME species with only a few exceptions, such as the subcellular location of transfer acid production and the degree and pattern of up-regulation of genes encoding C-4 enzymes. One additional mitochondrial transporter protein was associated with the core cycle. The broad comparison identified sucrose and starch synthesis, as well as the prevention of leakage of C-4 cycle intermediates to other metabolic pathways, as critical components of C-4 metabolism. Estimation of intercellular transport fluxes indicated that flux between cells is increased by at least two orders of magnitude in C-4 species compared with C-3 species. In contrast to NAD-ME and NADP-ME species, the transcription of photosynthetic electron transfer proteins was unchanged in PEP-CK. In summary, the PEP-CK blueprint of M. maximus appears to be simpler than those of NAD-ME and NADP-ME plants.
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Bräutigam A, Schliesky S, Külahoglu C, Osborne CP, Weber APM. Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2014;65(13):3579-3593.
Bräutigam, A., Schliesky, S., Külahoglu, C., Osborne, C. P., & Weber, A. P. M. (2014). Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(13), 3579-3593. doi:10.1093/jxb/eru100
Bräutigam, A., Schliesky, S., Külahoglu, C., Osborne, C. P., and Weber, A. P. M. (2014). Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species. Journal of Experimental Botany 65, 3579-3593.
Bräutigam, A., et al., 2014. Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species. Journal of Experimental Botany, 65(13), p 3579-3593.
A. Bräutigam, et al., “Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species”, Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 65, 2014, pp. 3579-3593.
Bräutigam, A., Schliesky, S., Külahoglu, C., Osborne, C.P., Weber, A.P.M.: Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species. Journal of Experimental Botany. 65, 3579-3593 (2014).
Bräutigam, Andrea, Schliesky, Simon, Külahoglu, Canan, Osborne, Colin P., and Weber, Andreas P. M. “Towards an integrative model of C-4 photosynthetic subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-ME, and PEP-CK C-4 species”. Journal of Experimental Botany 65.13 (2014): 3579-3593.
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