Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

Rode S, Hölscher R, Sanna S, Klassen S, Kobayashi K, Yamada H, Schmidt WG, Kühnle A (2012)
Physical Review B 86(7): 075468.

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Atomic resolution images of the polar (000 (1) over bar) surface of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) are achieved by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy operated at the solid-water interface. The measured data reveal a hexagonal surface unit cell. Its lattice constant corresponds to the bulk-truncated structure, suggesting that the high-temperature annealed surface does not reconstruct. Compared to the (000 (1) over bar) surface, high-resolution imaging on the oppositely charged (0001) surface is considerably more difficult to achieve. This finding is rationalized by density functional calculations that indicate a higher corrugation and softer bonds on the (000 (1) over bar) surface compared to the (0001) surface.
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Rode S, Hölscher R, Sanna S, et al. Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B. 2012;86(7): 075468.
Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Sanna, S., Klassen, S., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W. G., et al. (2012). Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B, 86(7), 075468. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.86.075468
Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Sanna, S., Klassen, S., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W. G., and Kühnle, A. (2012). Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B 86:075468.
Rode, S., et al., 2012. Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B, 86(7): 075468.
S. Rode, et al., “Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy”, Physical Review B, vol. 86, 2012, : 075468.
Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Sanna, S., Klassen, S., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W.G., Kühnle, A.: Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review B. 86, : 075468 (2012).
Rode, Sebastian, Hölscher, Rebecca, Sanna, Simone, Klassen, Stefanie, Kobayashi, Kei, Yamada, Hirofumi, Schmidt, Wolf Gero, and Kühnle, Angelika. “Atomic-resolution imaging of the polar (000(1)over-bar) surface of LiNbO3 in aqueous solution by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy”. Physical Review B 86.7 (2012): 075468.
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