Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces

Sanna S, Rode S, Hölscher R, Klassen S, Marutschke C, Kobayashi K, Yamada H, Schmidt WG, Kühnle A (2013)
Physical Review B 88(11): 115422.

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The microscopic structure of the polar (000 (1) over bar) and (0001) surfaces of lithium niobate is investigated by atomic-resolution frequency modulation atomic force microscopy and first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface reconstructs at annealing temperatures sufficiently high to drive off external adsorbates. In particular a (root 7 x root 7)R19.1 degrees reconstruction is found for the (000 (1) over bar) surface. Density-functional theory calculations show that-apart from the (root 7 x root 7)-a series of adatom-induced surface reconstructions exist that lower the surface energy and reduce the surface charge.
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Sanna S, Rode S, Hölscher R, et al. Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B. 2013;88(11):115422.
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., et al. (2013). Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B, 88(11), 115422. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115422
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W. G., and Kühnle, A. (2013). Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B 88, 115422.
Sanna, S., et al., 2013. Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B, 88(11), p 115422.
S. Sanna, et al., “Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces”, Physical Review B, vol. 88, 2013, pp. 115422.
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W.G., Kühnle, A.: Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B. 88, 115422 (2013).
Sanna, Simone, Rode, Sebastian, Hölscher, Rebecca, Klassen, Stefanie, Marutschke, Christoph, Kobayashi, Kei, Yamada, Hirofumi, Schmidt, Wolf Gero, and Kühnle, Angelika. “Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces”. Physical Review B 88.11 (2013): 115422.
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