Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces

Sanna S, Rode S, Hölscher R, Klassen S, Marutschke C, Kobayashi K, Yamada H, Schmidt WG, Kühnle A (2013)
Physical Review B 88(11): 115422.

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The microscopic structure of the polar (000 (1) over bar) and (0001) surfaces of lithium niobate is investigated by atomic-resolution frequency modulation atomic force microscopy and first-principles calculations. It is found that the surface reconstructs at annealing temperatures sufficiently high to drive off external adsorbates. In particular a (root 7 x root 7)R19.1 degrees reconstruction is found for the (000 (1) over bar) surface. Density-functional theory calculations show that-apart from the (root 7 x root 7)-a series of adatom-induced surface reconstructions exist that lower the surface energy and reduce the surface charge.
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Sanna S, Rode S, Hölscher R, et al. Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B. 2013;88(11): 115422.
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., et al. (2013). Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B, 88(11), 115422. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.88.115422
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W. G., and Kühnle, A. (2013). Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B 88:115422.
Sanna, S., et al., 2013. Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B, 88(11): 115422.
S. Sanna, et al., “Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces”, Physical Review B, vol. 88, 2013, : 115422.
Sanna, S., Rode, S., Hölscher, R., Klassen, S., Marutschke, C., Kobayashi, K., Yamada, H., Schmidt, W.G., Kühnle, A.: Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces. Physical Review B. 88, : 115422 (2013).
Sanna, Simone, Rode, Sebastian, Hölscher, Rebecca, Klassen, Stefanie, Marutschke, Christoph, Kobayashi, Kei, Yamada, Hirofumi, Schmidt, Wolf Gero, and Kühnle, Angelika. “Charge compensation by long-period reconstruction in strongly polar lithium niobate surfaces”. Physical Review B 88.11 (2013): 115422.
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