Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

Breivogel A, Park M, Lee D, Klassen S, Kühnle A, Lee C, Char K, Heinze K (2014)
European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2014(2): 288-295.

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Abstract
Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with a simple device structure were prepared by using heteroleptic bis(tridentate) ruthenium(II) complexes [1](PF6)(2)-[3](PF6)(2) as emitters. The push-pull substitution shifts the emission energy to low energy, into the NIR region. The devices emit deep red light up to a maximum emission wavelength of 755 nm [CIE (International Commission on Illumination) coordinates: x = 0.731, y = 0.269 for [3](PF6)(2)], which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest emission energy for LECs containing bis(tridentate) ruthenium(II) complexes. A device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ruthenium(II) complex/Ag was used, and the thickness of the emitting layer was measured by AFM [ITO: indium tin oxide, PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PSS: poly(styrenesulfonate), AFM: atomic force microscopy]. To enhance the external quantum efficiency (EQE), cells were fabricated with and without poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as additive in the emitting layer.
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Breivogel A, Park M, Lee D, et al. Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2014;2014(2):288-295.
Breivogel, A., Park, M., Lee, D., Klassen, S., Kühnle, A., Lee, C., Char, K., et al. (2014). Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2014(2), 288-295. doi:10.1002/ejic.201301226
Breivogel, A., Park, M., Lee, D., Klassen, S., Kühnle, A., Lee, C., Char, K., and Heinze, K. (2014). Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2014, 288-295.
Breivogel, A., et al., 2014. Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2014(2), p 288-295.
A. Breivogel, et al., “Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells”, European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2014, 2014, pp. 288-295.
Breivogel, A., Park, M., Lee, D., Klassen, S., Kühnle, A., Lee, C., Char, K., Heinze, K.: Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells. European Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2014, 288-295 (2014).
Breivogel, Aaron, Park, Myeongjin, Lee, Donggu, Klassen, Stefanie, Kühnle, Angelika, Lee, Changhee, Char, Kookheon, and Heinze, Katja. “Push-Pull Design of Bis(tridentate) Ruthenium(II) Polypyridine Chromophores as Deep Red Light Emitters in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells”. European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2014.2 (2014): 288-295.
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