Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester

Krämer CEM, Singh A, Helfrich S, Grünberger A, Wiechert W, Nöh K, Kohlheyer D (2015)
PLoS one 10(10): e0141768.

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Abstract
Phase contrast microscopy cannot give sufficient information on bacterial metabolic activity, or if a cell is dead, it has the fate to die or it is in a viable but non-growing state. Thus, a reliable sensing of the metabolic activity helps to distinguish different categories of viability. We present a non-invasive instantaneous sensing method using a fluorogenic substrate for online monitoring of esterase activity and calcein efflux changes in growing wild type bacteria. The fluorescent conversion product of calcein acetoxymethyl ester (CAM) and its efflux indicates the metabolic activity of cells grown under different conditions at real-time. The dynamic conversion of CAM and the active efflux of fluorescent calcein were analyzed by combining microfluidic single cell cultivation technology and fluorescence time lapse microscopy. Thus, an instantaneous and non-invasive sensing method for apparent esterase activity was created without the requirement of genetic modification or harmful procedures. The metabolic activity sensing method consisting of esterase activity and calcein secretion was demonstrated in two applications. Firstly, growing colonies of our model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum were confronted with intermittent nutrient starvation by interrupting the supply of iron and carbon, respectively. Secondly, bacteria were exposed for one hour to fatal concentrations of antibiotics. Bacteria could be distinguished in growing and non-growing cells with metabolic activity as well as non-growing and non-fluorescent cells with no detectable esterase activity. Microfluidic single cell cultivation combined with high temporal resolution time-lapse microscopy facilitated monitoring metabolic activity of stressed cells and analyzing their descendants in the subsequent recovery phase. Results clearly show that the combination of CAM with a sampling free microfluidic approach is a powerful tool to gain insights in the metabolic activity of growing and non-growing bacteria.
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Krämer CEM, Singh A, Helfrich S, et al. Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester. PLoS one. 2015;10(10): e0141768.
Krämer, C. E. M., Singh, A., Helfrich, S., Grünberger, A., Wiechert, W., Nöh, K., & Kohlheyer, D. (2015). Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester. PLoS one, 10(10), e0141768. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141768
Krämer, C. E. M., Singh, A., Helfrich, S., Grünberger, A., Wiechert, W., Nöh, K., and Kohlheyer, D. (2015). Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester. PLoS one 10:e0141768.
Krämer, C.E.M., et al., 2015. Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester. PLoS one, 10(10): e0141768.
C.E.M. Krämer, et al., “Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester”, PLoS one, vol. 10, 2015, : e0141768.
Krämer, C.E.M., Singh, A., Helfrich, S., Grünberger, A., Wiechert, W., Nöh, K., Kohlheyer, D.: Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester. PLoS one. 10, : e0141768 (2015).
Krämer, Christina E. M., Singh, Abhijeet, Helfrich, Stefan, Grünberger, Alexander, Wiechert, Wolfgang, Nöh, Katharina, and Kohlheyer, Dietrich. “Non-Invasive Microbial Metabolic Activity Sensing at Single Cell Level by Perfusion of Calcein Acetoxymethyl Ester”. PLoS one 10.10 (2015): e0141768.
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A Flow Cytometry Method for Rapidly Assessing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Responses to Antibiotics with Different Modes of Action.
Hendon-Dunn CL, Doris KS, Thomas SR, Allnutt JC, Marriott AA, Hatch KA, Watson RJ, Bottley G, Marsh PD, Taylor SC, Bacon J., Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60(7), 2016
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