Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students

Schlarb A, Bihlmaier I, Hautzinger M, Gulewitsch MD, Schwerdtle B (2015)
Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management 1: 2.

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Abstract
Sleep problems are a common complaint among adults. In university students international studies showed prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties and 2-3% of students report nightmares. Previous studies show that nightmares are often associated with insomnia and mental strain, but also with gender. The goal of this study was to outline nightmares, associations with sleep disturbances and mental strain as well as self-efficacy among university students. An amount of 2196 students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years) participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, nightmares, mental strain and self-efficacy were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Analyses revealed that more than 24.3% of surveyed students suffered from nightmares, 18.5% reported nightmares more often than once a week and 5.8% suffered from nightmares at least 3 times a week. Moreover, nightmares were associated with symptoms of insomnia and low self-efficacy was significantly associated with an increased rate of nightmares. Besides, a total of 52% of students reported fitful sleep.
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Schlarb A, Bihlmaier I, Hautzinger M, Gulewitsch MD, Schwerdtle B. Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management. 2015;1: 2.
Schlarb, A., Bihlmaier, I., Hautzinger, M., Gulewitsch, M. D., & Schwerdtle, B. (2015). Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management, 1, 2
Schlarb, A., Bihlmaier, I., Hautzinger, M., Gulewitsch, M. D., and Schwerdtle, B. (2015). Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management 1:2.
Schlarb, A., et al., 2015. Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management, 1: 2.
A. Schlarb, et al., “Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students”, Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management, vol. 1, 2015, : 2.
Schlarb, A., Bihlmaier, I., Hautzinger, M., Gulewitsch, M.D., Schwerdtle, B.: Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management. 1, : 2 (2015).
Schlarb, Angelika, Bihlmaier, Isabel, Hautzinger, Martin, Gulewitsch, Marco D., and Schwerdtle, Barbara. “Nightmares and Associations with Sleep Quality and Self-Efficacy among University Students”. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management 1 (2015): 2.
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