Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant

Stolpe C, Giehren F, Krämer U, Müller C (2017)
Phytochemistry 139(7): 109-117.

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Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant
Abstract
Plants that are able to hyperaccumulate heavy metals show increased concentrations of these metals in their leaf tissue. However, little is known about the concentrations of heavy metals and of organic defence metabolites in the phloem sap of these plants in response to either heavy metal-amendment of the soil or biotic challenges such as aphid-infestation. In this study, we investigated the effects of heavy metal-exposure and of aphid-infestation on phloem exudate composition of the metal hyperaccumulator species Arabidopsis halleri L. O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz (Brassicaceae). The concentrations of elements and of organic defence compounds, namely glucosinolates, were measured in phloem exudates of young and old (mature) leaves of plants challenged either by amendment of the soil with cadmium and zinc and/or by an infestation with the generalist aphid Myzus persicae. Metal-amendment of the soil led to increased concentrations of Cd and Zn, but also of two other elements and one indole glucosinolate, in phloem exudates. This enhanced defence in the phloem sap of heavy metal-hyperaccumulating plants can thus potentially act as effective protection against aphids, as predicted by the elemental defence hypothesis. Aphid-infestation also caused enhanced Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates. This result provides first evidence that metal-hyperaccumulating plants can increase heavy metal concentrations tissue-specifically in response to an attack by phloem-sucking herbivores. Overall, the concentrations of most elements, including the heavy metals, and glucosinolates were higher in phloem exudates of young leaves than in those of old leaves. This defence distribution highlights that the optimal defence theory, which predicts more valuable tissue to be better defended, is applicable for both inorganic and organic defences.
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Stolpe C, Giehren F, Krämer U, Müller C. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant. Phytochemistry. 2017;139(7):109-117.
Stolpe, C., Giehren, F., Krämer, U., & Müller, C. (2017). Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant. Phytochemistry, 139(7), 109-117. doi:org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2017.04.010
Stolpe, C., Giehren, F., Krämer, U., and Müller, C. (2017). Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant. Phytochemistry 139, 109-117.
Stolpe, C., et al., 2017. Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant. Phytochemistry, 139(7), p 109-117.
C. Stolpe, et al., “Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant”, Phytochemistry, vol. 139, 2017, pp. 109-117.
Stolpe, C., Giehren, F., Krämer, U., Müller, C.: Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant. Phytochemistry. 139, 109-117 (2017).
Stolpe, Clemens, Giehren, Franziska, Krämer, Ute, and Müller, Caroline. “Both heavy metal-amendment of soil and aphid-infestation increase Cd and Zn concentrations in phloem exudates of a metal-hyperaccumulating plant”. Phytochemistry 139.7 (2017): 109-117.
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