Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density

Frese N, Mitchell ST, Neumann C, Bowers A, Gölzhäuser A, Sattler K (2016)
BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 7: 2065-2073.

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Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with approximate to 2-3 mu m average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (approximate to 6-9 mu m diameter) which often coalesced to form nonspherical mu m-sized units. Both, low-and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp(2)-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp(3)-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp(3) connections in their surface network.
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Frese N, Mitchell ST, Neumann C, Bowers A, Gölzhäuser A, Sattler K. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY. 2016;7:2065-2073.
Frese, N., Mitchell, S. T., Neumann, C., Bowers, A., Gölzhäuser, A., & Sattler, K. (2016). Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, 7, 2065-2073. doi:10.3762/bjnano.7.197
Frese, N., Mitchell, S. T., Neumann, C., Bowers, A., Gölzhäuser, A., and Sattler, K. (2016). Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 7, 2065-2073.
Frese, N., et al., 2016. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, 7, p 2065-2073.
N. Frese, et al., “Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density”, BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY, vol. 7, 2016, pp. 2065-2073.
Frese, N., Mitchell, S.T., Neumann, C., Bowers, A., Gölzhäuser, A., Sattler, K.: Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY. 7, 2065-2073 (2016).
Frese, Natalie, Mitchell, Shelby Taylor, Neumann, Christof, Bowers, Amanda, Gölzhäuser, Armin, and Sattler, Klaus. “Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density”. BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF NANOTECHNOLOGY 7 (2016): 2065-2073.
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