Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid

Tomczak V, Müller C (2017)
Journal of Insect Physiology 98: 258-266.

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Abstract
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well established AM), respectively. Various performance traits were measured in the first aphid generation. Additionally, the body mass of the offspring was recorded to determine effects of previous infestation on the next generation. At the end of the herbivore experiments, plant carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as well as leaf mass per area (LMA) were analyzed as measures of plant quality. Developmental performance traits of the aphids were either affected by AM and time point (nymph body mass at day 6) or by the interaction of both (relative growth rate). However, body mass at day 10 and reproductive performance traits were lower on older plants, independent of AM treatment. In line with these results, host plant quality changed little due to AM but strongly with age, with decreases in leaf N and P, but increases in C and LMA. Furthermore, nymphs gained a higher body mass when feeding on previously infested plants compared to their parents that started to feed on non-infested hosts, likely due to an aphid-induced modification in host traits. In summary, our results indicate that effects of both the developmental stage of AM and the plant age on aphid performance change throughout aphid development and between generations, attributable to shifts in plant quality.
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Tomczak V, Müller C. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid. Journal of Insect Physiology. 2017;98:258-266.
Tomczak, V., & Müller, C. (2017). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid. Journal of Insect Physiology, 98, 258-266. doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2017.01.016
Tomczak, V., and Müller, C. (2017). Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid. Journal of Insect Physiology 98, 258-266.
Tomczak, V., & Müller, C., 2017. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid. Journal of Insect Physiology, 98, p 258-266.
V. Tomczak and C. Müller, “Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid”, Journal of Insect Physiology, vol. 98, 2017, pp. 258-266.
Tomczak, V., Müller, C.: Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid. Journal of Insect Physiology. 98, 258-266 (2017).
Tomczak, Viktoria, and Müller, Caroline. “Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal stage and plant age on the performance of a generalist aphid”. Journal of Insect Physiology 98 (2017): 258-266.
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PMID: 28159616
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