Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, Casey DC, Charlson FJ, Chen AZ, Coates MM, Coggeshall M, et al. (2016)
The Lancet 388(10053): 1459-1544.

OA 24.40 MB
Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Abstract / Bemerkung
Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61.7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61.4-61.9) in 1980 to 71.8 years (71.5-72.2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11.3 years (3.7-17.4), to 62.6 years (56.5-70.2). Total deaths increased by 4.1% (2.6-5.6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55.8 million (54.9 million to 56.6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17.0% (15.8-18.1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14.1% (12.6-16.0) to 39.8 million (39.2 million to 40.5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13.1% (11.9-14.3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42.1%, 39.1-44.6), malaria (43.1%, 34.7-51.8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29.8%, 24.8-34.9), and maternal disorders (29.1%, 19.3-37.1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death. Interpretation At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The Lancet


Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, et al. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1459-1544.
Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., et al. (2016). Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388(10053), 1459-1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1
Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., Charlson, F. J., Chen, A. Z., Coates, M. M., et al. (2016). Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet 388, 1459-1544.
Wang, H., et al., 2016. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet, 388(10053), p 1459-1544.
H. Wang, et al., “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015”, The Lancet, vol. 388, 2016, pp. 1459-1544.
Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R.M., Bhutta, Z.A., Carter, A., Casey, D.C., Charlson, F.J., Chen, A.Z., Coates, M.M., Coggeshall, M., Dandona, L., Dicker, D.J., Erskine, H.E., Ferrari, A.J., Fitzmaurice, C., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M.H., Fraser, M.S., Pullman, N., Gething, P.W., Goldberg, E.M., Graetz, N., Haagsma, J.A., Hay, S.I., Huynh, C., Johnson, C., Kassebaum, N.J., Kinfu, Y., Kulikoff, X.R., Kutz, M., Kyu, H.H., Larson, H.J., Leung, J., Liang, X., Lim, S.S., Lind, M., Lozano, R., Marquez, N., Mensah, G.A., Mikesell, J., Mokdad, A.H., Mooney, M.D., Nguyen, G., Nsoesie, E., Pigott, D.M., Pinho, C., Roth, G.A., Salomon, J.A., Sandar, L., Silpakit, N., Sligar, A., Sorensen, R.J.D., Stanaway, J., Steiner, C., Teeple, S., Thomas, B.A., Troeger, C., VanderZanden, A., Vollset, S.E., Wanga, V., Whiteford, H.A., Wolock, T., Zoeckler, L., Abate, K.H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K.M., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S.F., Abreu, D.M.X., Abu-Raddad, L.J., Abyu, G.Y., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A.L., Ademi, Z., Adou, A.K., Adsuar, J.C., Afanvi, K.A., Afshin, A., Agardh, E.E., Agarwal, A., Agrawal, A., Kiadaliri, A.A., Ajala, O.N., Akanda, A.S., Akinyemi, R.O., Akinyemiju, T.F., Akseer, N., Al Lami, F.H., Alabed, S., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, N.K.M., Alasfoor, D., Aldhahri, S.F., Aldridge, R.W., Alegretti, M.A., Aleman, A.V., Alemu, Z.A., Alexander, L.T., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alkerwi, A.'a, Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Al-Raddadi, R., Alsharif, U., Altirkawi, K.A., Martin, E.A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A.T., Amegah, A.K., Ameh, E.A., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Amrock, S.M., Andersen, H.H., Anderson, B., Anderson, G.M., Antonio, C.A.T., Aregay, A.F., Arnlov, J., Arsenijevic, V.S.A., Al Artaman, A.A., Asayesh, H., Asghar, R.J., Atique, S., Arthur Avokpaho, E.F.G., Awasthi, A., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Bahit, M.C., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barker-Collo, S.L., Barnighausen, T., Barregard, L., Barrero, L.H., Basu, A., Basu, S., Bayou, Y.T., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Belay, H.A., Bell, B., Bell, M.L., Bello, A.K., Bennett, D.A., Bensenor, I.M., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Betsu, B.D., Beyene, A.S., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Biadgilign, S., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A.A., Biroscak, B.J., Biryukov, S., Bjertness, E., Blore, J.D., Blosser, C.D., Bohensky, M.A., Borschmann, R., Bose, D., Bourne, R.R.A., Brainin, M., Brayne, C.E.G., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N.J.K., Brenner, H., Brewer, J.D., Brown, A., Brown, J., Brugha, T.S., Buckle, G.C., Butt, Z.A., Calabria, B., Campos-Novato, I.R., Campuzano, J.C., Carapetis, J.R., Cardenas, R., Carpenter, D., Carrero, J.J., Castaneda-Oquela, C.A., Rivas, J.C., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Cercy, K., Cerda, J., Chen, W., Chew, A., Chiang, P.P.-C., Chibalabala, M., Chibueze, C.E., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chisumpa, V.H., Choi, J.-Y.J., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christopher, D.J., Ciobanu, L.G., Cirillo, M., Cohen, A.J., Colistro, V., Colomar, M., Colquhoun, S.M., Cooper, C., Cooper, L.T., Cortinovis, M., Cowie, B.C., Crump, J.A., Damsere-Derry, J., Danawi, H., Dandona, R., Daoud, F., Darby, S.C., Dargan, P.I., das Neves, J., Davey, G., Davis, A.C., Davitoiu, D.V., de Castro, E.F., de Jager, P., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Dellavalle, R.P., Deribe, K., Deribew, A., Dharmaratne, S.D., Dhillon, P.K., Diaz-Torne, C., Ding, E.L., dos Santos, K.P.B., Dossou, E., Driscoll, T.R., Duan, L., Dubey, M., Bartholow, B., Ellenbogen, R.G., Lycke, C., Elyazar, I., Endries, A.Y., Ermakov, S.P., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Estep, K., Faghmous, I.D.A., Fahimi, S., Jose, E., Farid, T.A., Sa Farinha, C.S. e, Faro, A., Farvid, M.S., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V.L., Fereshtehnejad, S.-M., Fernandes, J.G., Fernandes, J.C., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J.R.A., Flaxman, A., Foigt, N., Fowkes, F.G.R., Franca, E.B., Franklin, R.C., Friedman, J., Frostad, J., Hirst, T., Futran, N.D., Gall, S.L., Gambashidze, K., Gamkrelidze, A., Ganguly, P., Gankpe, F.G., Gebre, T., Gebrehiwot, T.T., Gebremedhin, A.T., Gebru, A.A., Geleijnse, J.M., Gessner, B.D., Ghoshal, A.G., Gibney, K.B., Gillum, R.F., Gilmour, S., Giref, A.Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M.D., Giussani, G., Glaser, E., Godwin, W.W., Gomez-Dantes, H., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S.V., Gosselin, R.A., Gotay, C.C., Goto, A., Gouda, H.N., Greaves, F., Gugnani, H.C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Gutierrez, R.A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Haile, D., Hailu, A.D., Hailu, G.B., Halasa, Y.A., Hamadeh, R.R., Hamidi, S., Hancock, J., Handal, A.J., Hankey, G.J., Hao, Y., Harb, H.L., Harikrishnan, S., Haro, J.M., Havmoeller, R., Heckbert, S.R., Heredia-Pi, I.B., Heydarpour, P., Hilderink, H.B.M., Hoek, H.W., Hogg, R.S., Horino, M., Horita, N., Hosgood, H.D., Hotez, P.J., Hoy, D.G., Hsairi, M., Htet, A.S., Than Htike, M.M., Hu, G., Huang, C., Huang, H., Huiart, L., Husseini, A., Huybrechts, I., Huynh, G., Iburg, K.M., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Iyer, V.J., Jacobs, T.A., Jacobsen, K.H., Jahanmehr, N., Jakovljevic, M.B., James, P., Javanbakht, M., Jayaraman, S.P., Jayatilleke, A.U., Jeemon, P., Jensen, P.N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jiang, Y., Jibat, T., Jimenez-Corona, A., Jonas, J.B., Joshi, T.K., Kabir, Z., Karnak, R., Kan, H., Kant, S., Karch, A., Karema, C.K., Karimkhani, C., Karletsos, D., Karthikeyan, G., Kasaeian, A., Katibeh, M., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kayibanda, J.F., Keiyoro, P.N., Kemmer, L., Kemp, A.H., Kengne, A.P., Keren, A., Kereselidze, M., Kesavachandran, C.N., Khader, Y.S., Khalil, I.A., Khan, A.R., Khan, E.A., Khang, Y.-H., Khera, S., Muthafer Khoja, T.A., Kieling, C., Kim, D., Kim, Y.J., Kissela, B.M., Kissoon, N., Knibbs, L.D., Knudsen, A.K., Kokubo, Y., Kolte, D., Kopec, J.A., Kosen, S., Koul, P.A., Koyanagi, A., Krog, N.H., Defo, B.K., Bicer, B.K., Kudom, A.A., Kuipers, E.J., Kulkarni, V.S., Kumar, G.A., Kwan, G.F., Lal, A., Lal, D.K., Lalloo, R., Lam, H., Lam, J.O., Langan, S.M., Lansingh, V.C., Larsson, A., Laryea, D.O., Latif, A.A., Lawrynowicz, A.E.B., Leigh, J., Levi, M., Li, Y., Lindsay, M.P., Lipshultz, S.E., Liu, P.Y., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lo, L.-T., Logroscino, G., Lotufo, P.A., Lucas, R.M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R.A., Ma, S., Pedro Machado, V.M., Mackay, M.T., MacLachlan, J.H., Abd El Razek, H.M., Abd El Razek, M.M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Ayele Manamo, W.A., Mandisarisa, J., Mangalam, S., Mapoma, C.C., Marcenes, W., Margolis, D.J., Martin, G.R., Martinez-Raga, J., Marzan, M.B., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A.J., Massano, J., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B.M., McGarvey, S.T., McGrath, J.J., Mckee, M., McMahon, B.J., Meaney, P.A., Mehari, A., Mehndiratta, M.M., Mena-Rodriguez, F., Mekonnen, A.B., Melaku, Y.A., Memiah, P., Memish, Z.A., Mendoza, W., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T.J., Mhimbira, F.A., Micha, R., Miller, T.R., Mirarefin, M., Misganaw, A., Mock, C.N., Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, K., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Mohan, V., Mola, G.L.D., Monasta, L., Montanez Hernandez, J.C., Montero, P., Montico, M., Montine, T.J., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Morawska, L., Morgan, K., Mori, R., Mozaffarian, D., Mueller, U., Satyanarayana Murthy, G.V., Murthy, S., Musa, K.I., Nachega, J.B., Nagel, G., Naidoo, K.S., Naik, N., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Nash, D., Nejjari, C., Neupane, S., Newton, C.R., Newton, J.N., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F.N., Ngirabega, J. de D., Quyen Le Nguyen, Q.L.N., Nisar, M.I., Nkamedjie Pete, P.M., Nomura, M., Norheim, O.F., Norman, P.E., Norrving, B., Nyakarahuka, L., Ogbo, F.A., Ohkubo, T., Ojelabi, F.A., Olivares, P.R., Olusanya, B.O., Olusanya, J.O., Opio, J.N., Oren, E., Ortiz, A., Osman, M., Ota, E., Ozdemir, R., Pa, M., Pandian, J.D., Pant, P.R., Papachristou, C., Park, E.-K., Park, J.-H., Parry, C.D., Parsaeian, M., Caicedo, A.J.P., Patten, S.B., Patton, G.C., Paul, V.K., Pearce, N., Pedro, J.M., Stokic, L.P., Pereira, D.M., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Phillips, M.R., Piel, F.B., Pillay, J.D., Plass, D., Platts-Mills, J.A., Polinder, S., Pope, C.A., Popova, S., Poulton, R.G., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Qorbani, M., Quame-Amaglo, J., Quistberg, D.A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M.H.U., Rahman, S.U., Rai, R.K., Rajavi, Z., Rajsic, S., Raju, M., Rakovac, I., Rana, S.M., Ranabhat, C.L., Rangaswamy, T., Rao, P., Rao, S.R., Refaat, A.H., Rehm, J., Reitsma, M.B., Remuzzi, G., Resnikofff, S., Ribeiro, A.L., Ricci, S., Blancas, M.J.R., Roberts, B., Roca, A., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Rothenbacher, D., Roy, A., Roy, N.K., Ruhago, G.M., Sagar, R., Saha, S., Sahathevan, R., Saleh, M.M., Sanabria, J.R., Sanchez-Nino, M.D., Sanchez-Riera, L., Santos, I.S., Sarmiento-Suarez, R., Sartorius, B., Satpathy, M., Savic, M., Sawhney, M., Schaub, M.P., Schmidt, M.I., Schneider, I.J.C., Schottker, B., Schutte, A.E., Schwebel, D.C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S.G., Servan-Mori, E.E., Shackelford, K.A., Shaddick, G., Shaheen, A., Shahraz, S., Shaikh, M.A., Shakh-Nazarova, M., Sharma, R., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shen, J., Shen, Z., Shepard, D.S., Sheth, K.N., Shetty, B.P., Shi, P., Shibuya, K., Shin, M.-J., Shiri, R., Shiue, I., Shrime, M.G., Sigfusdottir, I.D., Silberberg, D.H., Silva, D.A.S., Silveira, D.G.A., Silverberg, J.I., Simard, E.P., Singh, A., Singh, G.M., Singh, J.A., Singh, O.P., Singh, P.K., Singh, V., Soneji, S., Soreide, K., Soriano, J.B., Sposato, L.A., Sreeramareddy, C.T., Stathopoulou, V., Stein, D.J., Stein, M.B., Stranges, S., Stroumpoulis, K., Sunguya, B.F., Sur, P., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B.L., Szoeke, C.E.I., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Tabb, K.M., Takahashi, K., Takala, J.S., Talongwa, R.T., Tandon, N., Tavakkoli, M., Taye, B., Taylor, H.R., Ao, B.J.T., Tedla, B.A., Tefera, W.M., Ten Have, M., Terkawi, A.S., Tesfay, F.H., Tessema, G.A., Thomson, A.J., Thorne-Lyman, A.L., Thrift, A.G., Thurston, G.D., Tillmann, T., Tirschwell, D.L., Tonelli, M., Topor-Madry, R., Topouzis, F., Nx, J.A.T., Traebert, J., Tran, B.X., Truelsen, T., Trujillo, U., Tura, A.K., Tuzcu, E.M., Uchendu, U.S., Ukwaja, K.N., Undurraga, E.A., Uthman, O.A., Van Dingenen, R., Van Donkelaar, A., Vasankari, T., Vasconcelos, A.M.N., Venketasubramanian, N., Vidavalur, R., Vijayakumar, L., Villalpando, S., Violante, F.S., Vlassov, V.V., Wagner, J.A., Wagner, G.R., Wallin, M.T., Wang, L., Watkins, D.A., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R.G., Werdecker, A., Westerman, R., White, R.A., Wijeratne, T., Wilkinson, J.D., Williams, H.C., Wiysonge, C.S., Woldeyohannes, S.M., Wolfe, C.D.A., Won, S., Wong, J.Q., Woolf, A.D., Xavier, D., Xiao, Q., Xu, G., Yakob, B., Yalew, A.Z., Yan, L.L., Yano, Y., Yaseri, M., Ye, P., Yebyo, H.G., Yip, P., Yirsaw, B.D., Yonemoto, N., Yonga, G., Younis, M.Z., Yu, S., Zaidi, Z., Zaki, M.E.S., Zannad, F., Zavala, D.E., Zeeb, H., Zeleke, B.M., Zhang, H., Zodpey, S., Zonies, D., Zuhlke, L.J., Vos, T., Lopez, A.D., Murray, C.J.L.: Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet. 388, 1459-1544 (2016).
Wang, Haidong, Naghavi, Mohsen, Allen, Christine, Barber, Ryan M., Bhutta, Zulfiqar A., Carter, Austin, Casey, Daniel C., Charlson, Fiona J., Chen, Alan Zian, Coates, Matthew M., Coggeshall, Megan, Dandona, Lalit, Dicker, Daniel J., Erskine, Holly E., Ferrari, Alize J., Fitzmaurice, Christina, Foreman, Kyle, Forouzanfar, Mohammad H., Fraser, Maya S., Pullman, Nancy, Gething, Peter W., Goldberg, Ellen M., Graetz, Nicholas, Haagsma, Juanita A., Hay, Simon I., Huynh, Chantal, Johnson, Catherine, Kassebaum, Nicholas J., Kinfu, Yohannes, Kulikoff, Xie Rachel, Kutz, Michael, Kyu, Hmwe H., Larson, Heidi J., Leung, Janni, Liang, Xiaofeng, Lim, Stephen S., Lind, Margaret, Lozano, Rafael, Marquez, Neal, Mensah, George A., Mikesell, Joe, Mokdad, Ali H., Mooney, Meghan D., Nguyen, Grant, Nsoesie, Elaine, Pigott, David M., Pinho, Christine, Roth, Gregory A., Salomon, Joshua A., Sandar, Logan, Silpakit, Naris, Sligar, Amber, Sorensen, Reed J. D., Stanaway, Jeffrey, Steiner, Caitlyn, Teeple, Stephanie, Thomas, Bernadette A., Troeger, Christopher, VanderZanden, Amelia, Vollset, Stein Emil, Wanga, Valentine, Whiteford, Harvey A., Wolock, Timothy, Zoeckler, Leo, Abate, Kalkidan Hassen, Abbafati, Cristiana, Abbas, Kaja M., Abd-Allah, Foad, Abera, Semaw Ferede, Abreu, Daisy M. X., Abu-Raddad, Laith J., Abyu, Gebre Yitayih, Achoki, Tom, Adelekan, Ademola Lukman, Ademi, Zanfina, Adou, Arsene Kouablan, Adsuar, Jose C., Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko, Afshin, Ashkan, Agardh, Emilie Elisabet, Agarwal, Arnav, Agrawal, Anurag, Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad, Ajala, Oluremi N., Akanda, All Shafqat, Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola, Akinyemiju, Tomi F., Akseer, Nadia, Al Lami, Faris Hasan, Alabed, Samer, Al-Aly, Ziyad, Alam, Khurshid, Alam, Noore K. M., Alasfoor, Deena, Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed, Aldridge, Robert William, Alegretti, Miguel Angel, Aleman, Alicia V., Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw, Alexander, Lily T., Alhabib, Samia, Ali, Raghib, Alkerwi, Ala'a, Alla, Francois, Allebeck, Peter, Al-Raddadi, Rajaa, Alsharif, Ubai, Altirkawi, Khalid A., Martin, Elena Alvarez, Alvis-Guzman, Nelson, Amare, Azmeraw T., Amegah, Adeladza Kofi, Ameh, Emmanuel A., Amini, Heresh, Ammar, Walid, Amrock, Stephen Marc, Andersen, Hjalte H., Anderson, Benjamin, Anderson, Gregory M., Antonio, Carl Abelardo T., Aregay, Atsede Fantahun, Arnlov, Johan, Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic, Al Artaman, Al Artaman, Asayesh, Hamid, Asghar, Rana Jawad, Atique, Suleman, Arthur Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G., Awasthi, Ashish, Azzopardi, Peter, Bacha, Umar, Badawi, Alaa, Bahit, Maria C., Balakrishnan, Kalpana, Banerjee, Amitava, Barac, Aleksandra, Barker-Collo, Suzanne L., Barnighausen, Till, Barregard, Lars, Barrero, Lope H., Basu, Arindam, Basu, Sanjay, Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw, Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad, Beardsley, Justin, Bedi, Neeraj, Beghi, Ettore, Belay, Haileeyesus Adamu, Bell, Brent, Bell, Michelle L., Bello, Aminu K., Bennett, Derrick A., Bensenor, Isabela M., Berhane, Adugnaw, Bernabe, Eduardo, Betsu, Balem Demtsu, Beyene, Addisu Shunu, Bhala, Neeraj, Bhalla, Ashish, Biadgilign, Sibhatu, Bikbov, Boris, Bin Abdulhak, Aref A., Biroscak, Brian J., Biryukov, Stan, Bjertness, Espen, Blore, Jed D., Blosser, Christopher D., Bohensky, Megan A., Borschmann, Rohan, Bose, Dipan, Bourne, Rupert R. A., Brainin, Michael, Brayne, Carol E. G., Brazinova, Alexandra, Breitborde, Nicholas J. K., Brenner, Hermann, Brewer, Jerry D., Brown, Alexandria, Brown, Jonathan, Brugha, Traolach S., Buckle, Geoffrey Colin, Butt, Zahid A., Calabria, Bianca, Campos-Novato, Ismael Ricardo, Campuzano, Julio Cesar, Carapetis, Jonathan R., Cardenas, Rosario, Carpenter, David, Carrero, Juan Jesus, Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A., Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo, Catala-Lopez, Ferran, Cavalleri, Fiorella, Cercy, Kelly, Cerda, Jorge, Chen, Wanqing, Chew, Adrienne, Chiang, Peggy Pei -Chia, Chibalabala, Mirriam, Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne, Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel, Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe, Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine, Chowdhury, Rajiv, Christensen, Hanne, Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas, Ciobanu, Liliana G., Cirillo, Massimo, Cohen, Aaron J., Colistro, Valentina, Colomar, Mercedes, Colquhoun, Samantha M., Cooper, Cyrus, Cooper, Leslie Trumbull, Cortinovis, Monica, Cowie, Benjamin C., Crump, John A., Damsere-Derry, James, Danawi, Hadi, Dandona, Rakhi, Daoud, Farah, Darby, Sarah C., Dargan, Paul I., das Neves, Jose, Davey, Gail, Davis, Adrian C., Davitoiu, Dragos V., de Castro, E. Filipa, de Jager, Pieter, De Leo, Diego, Degenhardt, Louisa, Dellavalle, Robert P., Deribe, Kebede, Deribew, Amare, Dharmaratne, Samath D., Dhillon, Preet K., Diaz-Torne, Cesar, Ding, Eric L., dos Santos, Kadine Priscila Bender, Dossou, Edem, Driscoll, Tim R., Duan, Leilei, Dubey, Manisha, Bartholow, Bruce, Ellenbogen, Richard G., Lycke, Christian, Elyazar, Iqbal, Endries, Aman Yesuf, Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich, Eshrati, Babak, Esteghamati, Alireza, Estep, Kara, Faghmous, Imad D. A., Fahimi, Saman, Jose, Emerito, Farid, Talha A., Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e, Faro, Andre, Farvid, Maryam S., Farzadfar, Farshad, Feigin, Valery L., Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad, Fernandes, Jefferson G., Fernandes, Joao C., Fischer, Florian, Fitchett, Joseph R. A., Flaxman, Abraham, Foigt, Nataliya, Fowkes, F. Gerry R., Franca, Elisabeth Barboza, Franklin, Richard C., Friedman, Joseph, Frostad, Joseph, Hirst, Thomas, Futran, Neal D., Gall, Seana L., Gambashidze, Ketevan, Gamkrelidze, Amiran, Ganguly, Parthasarathi, Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho, Gebre, Teshome, Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tsewelde, Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay, Gebru, Alemseged Aregay, Geleijnse, Johanna M., Gessner, Bradford D., Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal, Gibney, Katherine B., Gillum, Richard F., Gilmour, Stuart, Giref, Ababi Zergaw, Giroud, Maurice, Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo, Giussani, Giorgia, Glaser, Elizabeth, Godwin, William W., Gomez-Dantes, Hector, Gona, Philimon, Goodridge, Amador, Gopalani, Sameer Vali, Gosselin, Richard A., Gotay, Carolyn C., Goto, Atsushi, Gouda, Hebe N., Greaves, Felix, Gugnani, Harish Chander, Gupta, Rahul, Gupta, Rajeev, Gupta, Vipin, Gutierrez, Reyna A., Hafezi-Nejad, Nima, Haile, Demewoz, Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne, Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa, Halasa, Yara A., Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi, Hamidi, Samer, Hancock, Jamie, Handal, Alexis J., Hankey, Graeme J., Hao, Yuantao, Harb, Hilda L., Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai, Haro, Josep Maria, Havmoeller, Rasmus, Heckbert, Susan R., Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz, Heydarpour, Pouria, Hilderink, Henk B. M., Hoek, Hans W., Hogg, Robert S., Horino, Masako, Horita, Nobuyuki, Hosgood, H. Dean, Hotez, Peter J., Hoy, Damian G., Hsairi, Mohamed, Htet, Aung Soe, Than Htike, Maung Maung, Hu, Guoqing, Huang, Cheng, Huang, Hsiang, Huiart, Laetitia, Husseini, Abdullatif, Huybrechts, Inge, Huynh, Grace, Iburg, Kim Moesgaard, Innos, Kaire, Inoue, Manami, Iyer, Veena J., Jacobs, Troy A., Jacobsen, Kathryn H., Jahanmehr, Nader, Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B., James, Peter, Javanbakht, Mehdi, Jayaraman, Sudha P., Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra, Jeemon, Panniyammakal, Jensen, Paul N., Jha, Vivekanand, Jiang, Guohong, Jiang, Ying, Jibat, Tariku, Jimenez-Corona, Aida, Jonas, Jost B., Joshi, Tushar Kant, Kabir, Zubair, Karnak, Ritul, Kan, Haidong, Kant, Surya, Karch, Andre, Karema, Corine Kakizi, Karimkhani, Chante, Karletsos, Dimitris, Karthikeyan, Ganesan, Kasaeian, Amir, Katibeh, Marzieh, Kaul, Anil, Kawakami, Norito, Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise, Keiyoro, Peter Njenga, Kemmer, Laura, Kemp, Andrew Haddon, Kengne, Andre Pascal, Keren, Andre, Kereselidze, Maia, Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair, Khader, Yousef Saleh, Khalil, Ibrahim A., Khan, Abdur Rahman, Khan, Ejaz Ahmad, Khang, Young-Ho, Khera, Sahil, Muthafer Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed, Kieling, Christian, Kim, Daniel, Kim, Yun Jin, Kissela, Brett M., Kissoon, Niranjan, Knibbs, Luke D., Knudsen, Ann Kristin, Kokubo, Yoshihiro, Kolte, Dhaval, Kopec, Jacek A., Kosen, Soewarta, Koul, Parvaiz A., Koyanagi, Ai, Krog, Norun Hjertager, Defo, Barthelemy Kuate, Bicer, Burcu Kucuk, Kudom, Andreas A., Kuipers, Ernst J., Kulkarni, Veena S., Kumar, G. Anil, Kwan, Gene F., Lal, Aparna, Lal, Dharmesh Kumar, Lalloo, Ratilal, Lam, Hilton, Lam, Jennifer O., Langan, Sinead M., Lansingh, Van C., Larsson, Anders, Laryea, Dennis Odai, Latif, Asma Abdul, Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz, Leigh, James, Levi, Miriam, Li, Yongmei, Lindsay, M. Patrice, Lipshultz, Steven E., Liu, Patrick Y., Liu, Shiwei, Liu, Yang, Lo, Loon-Tzian, Logroscino, Giancarlo, Lotufo, Paulo A., Lucas, Robyn M., Lunevicius, Raimundas, Lyons, Ronan A., Ma, Stefan, Pedro Machado, Vasco Manuel, Mackay, Mark T., MacLachlan, Jennifer H., Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy, Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy, Majdan, Marek, Majeed, Azeem, Malekzadeh, Reza, Ayele Manamo, Wondimu Ayele, Mandisarisa, John, Mangalam, Srikanth, Mapoma, Chabila C., Marcenes, Wagner, Margolis, David Joel, Martin, Gerard Robert, Martinez-Raga, Jose, Marzan, Melvin Barrientos, Masiye, Felix, Mason-Jones, Amanda J., Massano, Joao, Matzopoulos, Richard, Mayosi, Bongani M., McGarvey, Stephen Theodore, McGrath, John J., Mckee, Martin, McMahon, Brian J., Meaney, Peter A., Mehari, Alem, Mehndiratta, Man Mohan, Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola, Mekonnen, Alemayehu B., Melaku, Yohannes Adama, Memiah, Peter, Memish, Ziad A., Mendoza, Walter, Meretoja, Atte, Meretoja, Tuomo J., Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary, Micha, Renata, Miller, Ted R., Mirarefin, Mojde, Misganaw, Awoke, Mock, Charles N., Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Karzan, Mohammadi, Alireza, Mohammed, Shafiu, Mohan, Viswanathan, Mola, Glen Liddell D., Monasta, Lorenzo, Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar, Montero, Pablo, Montico, Marcella, Montine, Thomas J., Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar, Morawska, Lidia, Morgan, Katherine, Mori, Rintaro, Mozaffarian, Dariush, Mueller, Ulrich, Satyanarayana Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata, Murthy, Srinivas, Musa, Kamarul Imran, Nachega, Jean B., Nagel, Gabriele, Naidoo, Kovin S., Naik, Nitish, Naldi, Luigi, Nangia, Vinay, Nash, Denis, Nejjari, Chakib, Neupane, Subas, Newton, Charles R., Newton, John N., Ng, Marie, Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak, Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu, Quyen Le Nguyen, Quyen Le Nguyen, Nisar, Muhammad Imran, Nkamedjie Pete, Patrick Martial, Nomura, Marika, Norheim, Ole F., Norman, Paul E., Norrving, Bo, Nyakarahuka, Luke, Ogbo, Felix Akpojene, Ohkubo, Takayoshi, Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola, Olivares, Pedro R., Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola, Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun, Opio, John Nelson, Oren, Eyal, Ortiz, Alberto, Osman, Majdi, Ota, Erika, Ozdemir, Raziye, Pa, Mahesh, Pandian, Jeyaraj D., Pant, Puspa Raj, Papachristou, Christina, Park, Eun-Kee, Park, Jae-Hyun, Parry, Charles D., Parsaeian, Mahboubeh, Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina, Patten, Scott B., Patton, George C., Paul, Vinod K., Pearce, Neil, Pedro, Joao Mario, Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin, Pereira, David M., Perico, Norberto, Pesudovs, Konrad, Petzold, Max, Phillips, Michael Robert, Piel, Frederic B., Pillay, Julian David, Plass, Dietrich, Platts-Mills, James A., Polinder, Suzanne, Pope, C. Arden, Popova, Svetlana, Poulton, Richie G., Pourmalek, Farshad, Prabhakaran, Dorairaj, Qorbani, Mostafa, Quame-Amaglo, Justice, Quistberg, D. Alex, Rafay, Anwar, Rahimi, Kazem, Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa, Rahman, Mahfuzar, Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur, Rahman, Sajjad Ur, Rai, Rajesh Kumar, Rajavi, Zhale, Rajsic, Sasa, Raju, Murugesan, Rakovac, Ivo, Rana, Saleem M., Ranabhat, Chhabi L., Rangaswamy, Thara, Rao, Puja, Rao, Sowmya R., Refaat, Amany H., Rehm, Jurgen, Reitsma, Marissa B., Remuzzi, Giuseppe, Resnikofff, Serge, Ribeiro, Antonio L., Ricci, Stefano, Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios, Roberts, Bayard, Roca, Anna, Rojas-Rueda, David, Ronfani, Luca, Roshandel, Gholamreza, Rothenbacher, Dietrich, Roy, Ambuj, Roy, Nawal K., Ruhago, George Mugambage, Sagar, Rajesh, Saha, Sukanta, Sahathevan, Ramesh, Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad, Sanabria, Juan R., Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores, Sanchez-Riera, Lidia, Santos, Itamar S., Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo, Sartorius, Benn, Satpathy, Maheswar, Savic, Miloje, Sawhney, Monika, Schaub, Michael P., Schmidt, Maria Ines, Schneider, Ione J. C., Schottker, Ben, Schutte, Aletta E., Schwebel, David C., Seedat, Soraya, Sepanlou, Sadaf G., Servan-Mori, Edson E., Shackelford, Katya A., Shaddick, Gavin, Shaheen, Amira, Shahraz, Saeid, Shaikh, Masood Ali, Shakh-Nazarova, Marina, Sharma, Rajesh, She, Jun, Sheikhbahaei, Sara, Shen, Jiabin, Shen, Ziyan, Shepard, Donald S., Sheth, Kevin N., Shetty, Balakrishna P., Shi, Peilin, Shibuya, Kenji, Shin, Min-Jeong, Shiri, Rahman, Shiue, Ivy, Shrime, Mark G., Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora, Silberberg, Donald H., Silva, Diego Augusto Santos, Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves, Silverberg, Jonathan I., Simard, Edgar P., Singh, Abhishek, Singh, Gitanjali M., Singh, Jasvinder A., Singh, Om Prakash, Singh, Prashant Kumar, Singh, Virendra, Soneji, Samir, Soreide, Kjetil, Soriano, Joan B., Sposato, Luciano A., Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T., Stathopoulou, Vasiliki, Stein, Dan J., Stein, Murray B., Stranges, Saverio, Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos, Sunguya, Bruno F., Sur, Patrick, Swaminathan, Soumya, Sykes, Bryan L., Szoeke, Cassandra E. I., Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael, Tabb, Karen M., Takahashi, Ken, Takala, Jukka S., Talongwa, Roberto Tchio, Tandon, Nikhil, Tavakkoli, Mohammad, Taye, Bineyam, Taylor, Hugh R., Ao, Braden J. Te, Tedla, Bemnet Amare, Tefera, Worku Mekonnen, Ten Have, Margreet, Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman, Tesfay, Fisaha Haile, Tessema, Gizachew Assefa, Thomson, Alan J., Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L., Thrift, Amanda G., Thurston, George D., Tillmann, Taavi, Tirschwell, David L., Tonelli, Marcello, Topor-Madry, Roman, Topouzis, Fotis, Nx, Jeffrey Allen Towb, Traebert, Jefferson, Tran, Bach Xuan, Truelsen, Thomas, Trujillo, Ulises, Tura, Abera Kenay, Tuzcu, Emin Murat, Uchendu, Uche S., Ukwaja, Kingsley N., Undurraga, Eduardo A., Uthman, Olalekan A., Van Dingenen, Rita, Van Donkelaar, Aaron, Vasankari, Tommi, Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales, Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy, Vidavalur, Ramesh, Vijayakumar, Lakshmi, Villalpando, Salvador, Violante, Francesco S., Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich, Wagner, Joseph A., Wagner, Gregory R., Wallin, Mitchell T., Wang, Linhong, Watkins, David A., Weichenthal, Scott, Weiderpass, Elisabete, Weintraub, Robert G., Werdecker, Andrea, Westerman, Ronny, White, Richard A., Wijeratne, Tissa, Wilkinson, James D., Williams, Hywel C., Wiysonge, Charles Shey, Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret, Wolfe, Charles D. A., Won, Sungho, Wong, John Q., Woolf, Anthony D., Xavier, Denis, Xiao, Qingyang, Xu, Gelin, Yakob, Bereket, Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene, Yan, Lijing L., Yano, Yuichiro, Yaseri, Mehdi, Ye, Pengpeng, Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin, Yip, Paul, Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn, Yonemoto, Naohiro, Yonga, Gerald, Younis, Mustafa Z., Yu, Shicheng, Zaidi, Zoubida, Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed, Zannad, Faiez, Zavala, Diego E., Zeeb, Hajo, Zeleke, Berihun M., Zhang, Hao, Zodpey, Sanjay, Zonies, David, Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna, Vos, Theo, Lopez, Alan D., and Murray, Christopher J. L. “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015”. The Lancet 388.10053 (2016): 1459-1544.
Access Level
OA Open Access
Zuletzt Hochgeladen

457 Zitationen in Europe PMC

Daten bereitgestellt von Europe PubMed Central.

Longer lives and unfinished agendas on child survival.
Watkins K., Lancet 388(10053), 2016
PMID: 27733279


Markieren/ Markierung löschen
Markierte Publikationen

Open Data PUB

Web of Science

Dieser Datensatz im Web of Science®


PMID: 27733281
PubMed | Europe PMC

Suchen in

Google Scholar