Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising

Bittner JV, Schipper J (2014)
Journal of Consumer Marketing 31(5): 391-400.

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Journal Article | Original Article | Published | English

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Game-elements can be embedded within sports advertisements, but little is known about the success factors of this technology. We investigated which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational incentives of game designs influence purchase intentions of sports products. The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was expected to explain purchase intentions of non-gamified products, whereas the modified technology acceptance model (Herzig et al., 2012) was expected to predict purchase intentions of gamified sports products. Participants were 101 consumers who performed sports on a regular basis. Age and prior experience with digital games were assumed to influence the effectiveness of gamification. Purchase intentions of conventional sports products were predicted by attitudes, subjective norm and perceived control, whereas purchase intentions of gamified products were predicted by attitudes and the perceived usefulness. Enjoyment mediated the effect of extrinsic incentives on purchase intentions, and flow was a mediator between intrinsic incentives and purchase intentions. As expected, consumers with prior gaming experience had higher purchase intentions for gamified products. Age differences indicate that young consumers had higher intentions to purchase the gamified product, judged it as more useful, and perceived more flow and enjoyment than the older age group. Game-elements in sports advertisements might also be suitable for public health campaigns. They motivate people to be more physically active and lead a healthier lifestyle. This study specifies predictors for purchase intentions of gamified products and emphasizes the importance of flow and enjoyment as mediators.
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Bittner JV, Schipper J. Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 2014;31(5):391-400.
Bittner, J. V., & Schipper, J. (2014). Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(5), 391-400. doi:10.1108/jcm-04-2014-0945
Bittner, J. V., and Schipper, J. (2014). Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing 31, 391-400.
Bittner, J.V., & Schipper, J., 2014. Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31(5), p 391-400.
J.V. Bittner and J. Schipper, “Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 31, 2014, pp. 391-400.
Bittner, J.V., Schipper, J.: Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing. 31, 391-400 (2014).
Bittner, Jenny Verena, and Schipper, Jeffrey. “Motivational effects and age differences of gamification in product advertising”. Journal of Consumer Marketing 31.5 (2014): 391-400.
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