Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship

Boatca M, Roth J (2016)
Current Sociology 64(2): 191-212.

Journal Article | Published | English

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An entire Occidentalist tradition of citizenship theory viewed citizenship as a modern, progressive institution that helped overcome particularities of unequal social origin. Contrary to the claims of this (mainly male) Western scholarly tradition, the article argues, first, that the institution of citizenship has developed in the West through the legal (and physical) exclusion of non-European, non-White and non-Western populations from civic, political, social and cultural rights; these exclusions, and thus citizenship as such, have historically been (en)gendered. Second, the article maintains that citizenship and gender are the most decisive factors accounting for extreme inequalities between individuals in rich and poor countries in the twenty-first century. Forms of racialization, sexualization and precarization to which the acquisition of citizenship and the corresponding gain in social mobility are linked today are illustrated with examples of practices to subvert citizenship law through marriage or childbirth in countries relying primarily on jus sanguinis and jus soli, respectively. Resume Toute une tradition theoretique occidentale sur la citoyennete voit cette derniere comme une institution moderne et progressive aidant a surmonter les particularites d'une origine sociale inegale. S'opposant a cette vision d'une tradition scientifique occidentale (et principalement masculine), cet article est structure autour de deux arguments. Le premier est que l'institution de la citoyennete en Occident se soit developpee par le biais d'une exclusion legale (et physique) de populations non-europeennes, non-blanches et non-occidentales des droits civiques, politiques, sociaux et culturels (ces derniers ayant, en plus, ete filtres selon le genre des individus). Le deuxieme est que la citoyennete et le genre soient les facteurs les plus decisifs pour rendre compte des inegalites extremes entre les individus des pays riches et pauvres du 21eme siecle. L'acquisition de la citoyennete liee a des formes de racialisation, de sexualisation et de precarisation est illustree a partir d'exemples d'allegations d'abus de lois de citoyennete concernant des mariages ou des naissances dans des pays dependants principalement du droit de sang et droit de sol. Resumen Toda una tradicion occidental de la teoria de la ciudadania ha considerado a la ciudadania como una institucion moderna y progresista que ha ayudado a superar particularidades de origenes sociales desiguales. Contrario a las afirmaciones de la tradicion academica occidental, que esta compuesta principalmente por hombres, el articulo sostiene, en primer lugar, que la institucion de la ciudadania se ha desarrollado en Occidente a traves de la exclusion legal y fisica de los derechos civiles, politicos y culturales pertenencientes a las poblaciones que no son europeas, blancas u occidentales. Estas exclusiones, y por tanto, la ciudadania como tal, han sido historicamente atravesadas por el genero. En segundo lugar, el articulo sostiene que la ciudadania y el genero son los factores determinantes principalmente responsables por las desigualdades extremas entre los individuos de los paises ricos y pobres en el siglo XXI. Las diversas manifestaciones de racializacion, sexualizacion y precarizacion que estan ligadas a la adquisicion de la ciudadania y movilidad social se ilustran con ejemplos de algunas practicas que subvierten la ley de ciudadania mediante el matrimonio o el nacimiento en los paises que dependen principalmente del jus sanguinis y el jus soli.
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Boatca M, Roth J. Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship. Current Sociology. 2016;64(2):191-212.
Boatca, M., & Roth, J. (2016). Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship. Current Sociology, 64(2), 191-212.
Boatca, M., and Roth, J. (2016). Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship. Current Sociology 64, 191-212.
Boatca, M., & Roth, J., 2016. Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship. Current Sociology, 64(2), p 191-212.
M. Boatca and J. Roth, “Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship”, Current Sociology, vol. 64, 2016, pp. 191-212.
Boatca, M., Roth, J.: Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship. Current Sociology. 64, 191-212 (2016).
Boatca, Manuela, and Roth, Julia. “Unequal and gendered: Notes on the coloniality of citizenship”. Current Sociology 64.2 (2016): 191-212.
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