Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond

Eilers E, Klein A-M (2009)
Biological Control 51(3): 388-394.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Pest control mediated by organisms such as parasitoids is a valuable ecosystem service, particularly with regard to high costs, low effectiveness, and detrimental effects of some agrochemicals. This study examined infestation rates and abundance of pests and their natural enemies in organic and conventional almond orchards in California, differing in landscape context, understory plant cover, and plant species richness. Parasitoids of the commercially most important insect pest of almond, the Navel Orangeworm (NOW) were studied by rearing NOW in collected overwintering nuts. The indirect impact of vertebrate natural enemies of NOW were estimated by counting empty nut shells with feeding marks by wild birds and various mammals, found at the orchard floor. Mean nut infestation by NOW ranged from 0.8% to 37% per orchard and was reduced by parasitism rates, ranging from 0% to 22%, and vertebrate nut damage, ranging from 2% to 96% per orchard. The parasitoids were facilitated by a high proportion of natural habitat surrounding the orchards and high proportion of understory ground cover with vegetation. The vertebrate natural enemies were facilitated by a high proportion of natural habitat surrounding the orchards and plant species richness in the orchard understory. In conclusion, this study shows that pest control mediated by vertebrates and invertebrates promoted by near natural habitats can lower pest pressure by NOW larvae in overwintering almond. In case of the vertebrate nut damage this service might only be temporal and turn into a dis-service during and after harvest because the vertebrates continue to feed on the nuts and may also cause injuries to the trees.
Erscheinungsjahr
Zeitschriftentitel
Biological Control
Band
51
Zeitschriftennummer
3
Seite
388-394
ISSN
PUB-ID

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Eilers E, Klein A-M. Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond. Biological Control. 2009;51(3):388-394.
Eilers, E., & Klein, A. - M. (2009). Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond. Biological Control, 51(3), 388-394. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.07.010
Eilers, E., and Klein, A. - M. (2009). Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond. Biological Control 51, 388-394.
Eilers, E., & Klein, A.-M., 2009. Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond. Biological Control, 51(3), p 388-394.
E. Eilers and A.-M. Klein, “Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond”, Biological Control, vol. 51, 2009, pp. 388-394.
Eilers, E., Klein, A.-M.: Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond. Biological Control. 51, 388-394 (2009).
Eilers, Elisabeth, and Klein, Alexandra-Maria. “Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond”. Biological Control 51.3 (2009): 388-394.