Pension reform in China

Liu T, Sun L (2016)
Journal of Aging & Social Policy 28(1): 15-28.

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This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of incomplete universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the policy bundle. Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been flattened, even though it remains stratified to some extent.
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Liu T, Sun L. Pension reform in China. Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 2016;28(1):15-28.
Liu, T., & Sun, L. (2016). Pension reform in China. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 28(1), 15-28. doi:10.1080/08959420.2016.1111725
Liu, T., and Sun, L. (2016). Pension reform in China. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 28, 15-28.
Liu, T., & Sun, L., 2016. Pension reform in China. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 28(1), p 15-28.
T. Liu and L. Sun, “Pension reform in China”, Journal of Aging & Social Policy, vol. 28, 2016, pp. 15-28.
Liu, T., Sun, L.: Pension reform in China. Journal of Aging & Social Policy. 28, 15-28 (2016).
Liu, Tao, and Sun, Li. “Pension reform in China”. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 28.1 (2016): 15-28.
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