NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain

Kaltschmidt B, Kaltschmidt C (2015)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 8: 69.

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Abstract
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) is a well-known regulator of inflammation, stress, and immune responses as well as cell survival. In the nervous system, NF-κB is one of the crucial components in the molecular switch that converts short- to long-term memory—a process that requires de novo gene expression. Here, the researches published on NF-κB and downstream target genes in mammals will be reviewed, which are necessary for structural plasticity and long-term memory, both under normal and pathological conditions in the brain. Genetic evidence has revealed that NF-κB regulates neuroprotection, neuronal transmission, and long-term memory. In addition, after genetic ablation of all NF-κB subunits, a severe defect in hippocampal adult neurogenesis was observed during aging. Proliferation of neural precursors is increased; however, axon outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and tissue homeostasis of the dentate gyrus are hampered. In this process, the NF-κB target gene PKAcat and other downstream target genes such as Igf2 are critically involved. Therefore, NF-κB activity seems to be crucial in regulating structural plasticity and replenishment of granule cells within the hippocampus throughout the life. In addition to the function of NF-κB in neurons, we will discuss on a neuroinflammatory role of the transcription factor in glia. Finally, a model for NF-κB homeostasis on the molecular level is presented, in order to explain seemingly the contradictory, the friend or foe, role of NF-κB in the nervous system.
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Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Fund of Bielefeld University.
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Kaltschmidt B, Kaltschmidt C. NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2015;8: 69.
Kaltschmidt, B., & Kaltschmidt, C. (2015). NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 8, 69. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2015.00069
Kaltschmidt, B., and Kaltschmidt, C. (2015). NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 8:69.
Kaltschmidt, B., & Kaltschmidt, C., 2015. NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 8: 69.
B. Kaltschmidt and C. Kaltschmidt, “NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain”, Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 8, 2015, : 69.
Kaltschmidt, B., Kaltschmidt, C.: NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 8, : 69 (2015).
Kaltschmidt, Barbara, and Kaltschmidt, Christian. “NF-KappaB in Long-Term Memory and Structural Plasticity in the Adult Mammalian Brain”. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 8 (2015): 69.
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