Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory

Reiss K, Schunck R, Razum O (2015)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(12): 15925-15936.

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Journal Article | Published | English
Abstract
Background: We analyzed changes in smoking by length of stay among immigrants in Germany and related them to the “smoking epidemic” model and the acculturation theory. Methods: We used data from a longitudinal survey (German Socio-economic Panel). Immigrants were identified by country of birth (Turkey: respondents n = 828, observations n = 3871; Eastern Europe: respondents n = 2009, observations n = 7202; non-immigrants: respondents n = 34,011, observations n = 140,701). Smoking status data was available for nine years between 1998 and 2012. Length of stay (LOS, in years) was used as proxy for acculturation. We calculated smoking prevalences, prevalence ratios and a random intercept multilevel logistic regression model. Results: With each year spent in Germany, smoking prevalence increases among Turkish women (OR = 1.14 (95%CI = 1.06–1.21)) and slightly decreases among men. Recently immigrated Turkish women smoke less than non-immigrant women (0–5 years: SPR = 0.25 (95%CI = 0.10–0.57)); prevalences converge with increasing LOS (31+ years: SPR = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.06–1.48)). Among Eastern European immigrants no significant changes were apparent. Conclusions: Immigrants from Turkey “import” their smoking prevalence from a country which is in the earlier stages of the “smoking epidemic”. With increasing LOS (thus, advancing acculturation), they “move” to the later stages. Anti-smoking interventions should consider different smoking attitudes in Turkey/Germany and need to discourage women from initiating smoking. Future research should also identify reasons for the possible differences between immigrant groups.
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Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Fund of Bielefeld University.
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Reiss K, Schunck R, Razum O. Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015;12(12):15925-15936.
Reiss, K., Schunck, R., & Razum, O. (2015). Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(12), 15925-15936.
Reiss, K., Schunck, R., and Razum, O. (2015). Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12, 15925-15936.
Reiss, K., Schunck, R., & Razum, O., 2015. Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(12), p 15925-15936.
K. Reiss, R. Schunck, and O. Razum, “Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 12, 2015, pp. 15925-15936.
Reiss, K., Schunck, R., Razum, O.: Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 12, 15925-15936 (2015).
Reiss, Katharina, Schunck, Reinhard, and Razum, Oliver. “Effect of Length of Stay on Smoking among Turkish and Eastern European Immigrants in Germany—Interpretation in The Light of the Smoking Epidemic Model and the Acculturation Theory”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12.12 (2015): 15925-15936.
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