Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion"

Streib H, Keller B, Klein C, Hood RW (2016)
In: Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis. Streib H, Hood RW (Eds);Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland: 87-103.

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Streib, Heinz ; Hood, Ralph W.
Abstract
The Bielefeld-based Cross-cultural Study on “Spirituality” had a special focus on the semantics of “spirituality” and “religion,” and for this purpose has included a semantic differential approach. Two semantic differentials were part of the questionnaire and have been completed by 1,082 US-American and 703 German respondents: one of Osgood’s “classical” instruments with 18 pairs of opposite adjectives, which had revealed a three-dimensional structure (evaluation, po-tency, activity) in previous cross-cultural research; the second instrument was a Contextual Semantic Differential with 30 pairs of opposite adjectives that has been constructed for this study. Both semantic differentials have been included twice in the questionnaire: first for “spirituality,” then for “religion.” Results are based on Paired t-tests comparing associations with “spirituality” and associations with “religion” for all adjectives, and on ANOVAs with focus groups in the US and the German samples. Results are visualized in line figures and scatter plots, which represent the semantic fields. Results generally indicate high regard for “spirituality” and rather negative evaluation of “religion.” They reveal relatively little differences between Germany and the US, but considerable differences be-tween respondents who self-identify as “more religious,” “more spiritual,” “neither religious nor spiritual” or “atheist” in the respective focus groups. We conclude that the semantic differentials yield insight in the surplus of “spirituality.”
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Streib H, Keller B, Klein C, Hood RW. Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion". In: Streib H, Hood RW, eds. Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland; 2016: 87-103.
Streib, H., Keller, B., Klein, C., & Hood, R. W. (2016). Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion". In H. Streib & R. W. Hood (Eds.), Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis (pp. 87-103). Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Streib, H., Keller, B., Klein, C., and Hood, R. W. (2016). “Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion"” in Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis, ed. H. Streib and R. W. Hood (Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland), 87-103.
Streib, H., et al., 2016. Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion". In H. Streib & R. W. Hood, eds. Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 87-103.
H. Streib, et al., “Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion"”, Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis, H. Streib and R.W. Hood, eds., Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016, pp.87-103.
Streib, H., Keller, B., Klein, C., Hood, R.W.: Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion". In: Streib, H. and Hood, R.W. (eds.) Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis. p. 87-103. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht (2016).
Streib, Heinz, Keller, Barbara, Klein, Constantin, and Hood, Ralph W. “Semantic Differentials Open New Perspectives on the Semantic Field of "Spirituality" and "Religion"”. Semantics and Psychology of "Spirituality". A Cross-cultural Analysis. Ed. Heinz Streib and Ralph W. Hood. Cham, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016. 87-103.
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