Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations

Shannon RM, Ravi V, Lentati LT, Lasky PD, Hobbs G, Kerr M, Manchester RN, Coles WA, Levin Y, Bailes M, Bhat NDR, et al. (2015)
Science 349(6255): 1522-1525.

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Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 x 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves.
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Shannon RM, Ravi V, Lentati LT, et al. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations. Science. 2015;349(6255):1522-1525.
Shannon, R. M., Ravi, V., Lentati, L. T., Lasky, P. D., Hobbs, G., Kerr, M., Manchester, R. N., et al. (2015). Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations. Science, 349(6255), 1522-1525.
Shannon, R. M., Ravi, V., Lentati, L. T., Lasky, P. D., Hobbs, G., Kerr, M., Manchester, R. N., Coles, W. A., Levin, Y., Bailes, M., et al. (2015). Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations. Science 349, 1522-1525.
Shannon, R.M., et al., 2015. Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations. Science, 349(6255), p 1522-1525.
R.M. Shannon, et al., “Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations”, Science, vol. 349, 2015, pp. 1522-1525.
Shannon, R.M., Ravi, V., Lentati, L.T., Lasky, P.D., Hobbs, G., Kerr, M., Manchester, R.N., Coles, W.A., Levin, Y., Bailes, M., Bhat, N.D.R., Burke-Spolaor, S., Dai, S., Keith, M.J., Oslowski, S., Reardon, D.J., van Straten, W., Toomey, L., Wang, J.-B., Wen, L., Wyithe, J.S.B., Zhu, X.-J.: Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations. Science. 349, 1522-1525 (2015).
Shannon, R. M., Ravi, V., Lentati, L. T., Lasky, P. D., Hobbs, G., Kerr, M., Manchester, R. N., Coles, W. A., Levin, Y., Bailes, M., Bhat, N. D. R., Burke-Spolaor, S., Dai, S., Keith, M. J., Oslowski, Stefan, Reardon, D. J., van Straten, W., Toomey, L., Wang, J. -B., Wen, L., Wyithe, J. S. B., and Zhu, X. -J. “Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations”. Science 349.6255 (2015): 1522-1525.
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