The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?

Shulevski A, Morganti R, Barthel PD, Murgia M, van Weeren RJ, White GJ, Brueggen M, Kunert-Bajraszewska M, Jamrozy M, Best PN, Rottgering HJA, et al. (2015)
Astronomy and Astrophysics 579: A27.

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Zeitschriftenaufsatz | Veröffentlicht | Englisch
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Abstract / Bemerkung
Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (similar to 4"), the source was known to have two inner radio lobes spanning 31 kpc and a diffuse, low-brightness extension running parallel to them, offset by about 11 kpc (in projection). At 62 MHz, we detect the radio emission of this structure extending out to 210 kpc. At 1.4 GHz and intermediate spatial resolution (similar to 30"), the structure appears to have a helical morphology. We have derived the characteristics of the radio spectral index across the source. We show that the source morphology is most likely the result of at least two episodes of AGN activity separated by a dormant period of around 35 Myr. The outermost regions of radio emission have a steep spectral index (alpha < -1), indicative of old plasma. We connect the spectral index properties of the resolved source structure with the integrated flux density spectral index of 4C 35.06 and suggest an explanation for its unusual integrated flux density spectral shape (a moderately steep power law with no discernible spectral break), possibly providing a proxy for future studies of more distant radio sources through inferring their detailed spectral index properties and activity history from their integrated spectral indices. The AGN is hosted by one of the galaxies located in the cluster core of Abell 407. We propose that it is intermittently active as it moves in the dense environment in the cluster core. In this scenario, the AGN turned on sometime in the past, and has produced the helical pattern of emission, possibly a sign of jet precession/merger during that episode of activity. Using LOFAR, we can trace the relic plasma from that episode of activity out to greater distances from the core than ever before. Using the the WSRT, we detect HI in absorption against the center of the radio source. The absorption profile is relatively broad (FWHM of 288 km s(-1)), similar to what is found in other clusters. The derived column density is N-HI similar to 4 x 10(20) cm(-2) for a T-spin = 100 K. This detection supports the connection - already suggested for other restarted radio sources - between the presence of cold gas and restarting activity. The cold gas appears to be dominated by a blue-shifted component although the broad HI profile could also include gas with different kinematics. Understanding the duty cycle of the radio emission as well as the triggering mechanism for starting (or restarting) the radio-loud activity can provide important constraints to quantify the impact of AGN feedback on galaxy evolution. The study of these mechanisms at low frequencies using morphological and spectral information promises to bring new important insights in this field.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics
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579
Artikelnummer
A27
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Shulevski A, Morganti R, Barthel PD, et al. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity? Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2015;579: A27.
Shulevski, A., Morganti, R., Barthel, P. D., Murgia, M., van Weeren, R. J., White, G. J., Brueggen, M., et al. (2015). The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity? Astronomy and Astrophysics, 579, A27. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201425416
Shulevski, A., Morganti, R., Barthel, P. D., Murgia, M., van Weeren, R. J., White, G. J., Brueggen, M., Kunert-Bajraszewska, M., Jamrozy, M., Best, P. N., et al. (2015). The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity? Astronomy and Astrophysics 579:A27.
Shulevski, A., et al., 2015. The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity? Astronomy and Astrophysics, 579: A27.
A. Shulevski, et al., “The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?”, Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 579, 2015, : A27.
Shulevski, A., Morganti, R., Barthel, P.D., Murgia, M., van Weeren, R.J., White, G.J., Brueggen, M., Kunert-Bajraszewska, M., Jamrozy, M., Best, P.N., Rottgering, H.J.A., Chyzy, K.T., de Gasperin, F., Birzan, L., Brunetti, G., Brienza, M., Rafferty, D.A., Anderson, J., Beck, R., Deller, A., Zarka, P., Schwarz, D., Mahony, E., Orru, E., Bell, M.E., Bentum, M.J., Bernardi, G., Bonafede, A., Breitling, F., Broderick, J.W., Butcher, H.R., Carbone, D., Ciardi, B., de Geus, E., Duscha, S., Eisloeffel, J., Engels, D., Falcke, H., Fallows, R.A., Fender, R., Ferrari, C., Frieswijk, W., Garrett, M.A., Griessmeier, J., Gunst, A.W., Heald, G., Hoeft, M., Horandel, J., Horneffer, A., van der Horst, A.J., Intema, H., Juette, E., Karastergiou, A., Kondratiev, V.I., Kramer, M., Kuniyoshi, M., Kuper, G., Maat, P., Mann, G., McFadden, R., McKay-Bukowski, D., McKean, J.P., Meulman, H., Mulcahy, D.D., Munk, H., Norden, M.J., Paas, H., Pandey-Pommier, M., Pizzo, R., Polatidis, A.G., Reich, W., Rowlinson, A., Scaife, A.M.M., Serylak, M., Sluman, J., Smirnov, O., Steinmetz, M., Swinbank, J., Tagger, M., Tang, Y., Tasse, C., Thoudam, S., Toribio, M.C., Vermeulen, R., Vocks, C., Wijers, R.A.M.J., Wise, M.W., Wucknitz, O.: The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity? Astronomy and Astrophysics. 579, : A27 (2015).
Shulevski, A., Morganti, R., Barthel, P. D., Murgia, M., van Weeren, R. J., White, G. J., Brueggen, M., Kunert-Bajraszewska, M., Jamrozy, M., Best, P. N., Rottgering, H. J. A., Chyzy, K. T., de Gasperin, F., Birzan, L., Brunetti, G., Brienza, M., Rafferty, D. A., Anderson, J., Beck, R., Deller, A., Zarka, P., Schwarz, Dominik, Mahony, E., Orru, E., Bell, M. E., Bentum, M. J., Bernardi, G., Bonafede, A., Breitling, F., Broderick, J. W., Butcher, H. R., Carbone, D., Ciardi, B., de Geus, E., Duscha, S., Eisloeffel, J., Engels, D., Falcke, H., Fallows, R. A., Fender, R., Ferrari, C., Frieswijk, W., Garrett, M. A., Griessmeier, J., Gunst, A. W., Heald, G., Hoeft, M., Horandel, J., Horneffer, A., van der Horst, A. J., Intema, H., Juette, E., Karastergiou, A., Kondratiev, V. I., Kramer, M., Kuniyoshi, M., Kuper, G., Maat, P., Mann, G., McFadden, R., McKay-Bukowski, D., McKean, J. P., Meulman, H., Mulcahy, D. D., Munk, H., Norden, M. J., Paas, H., Pandey-Pommier, M., Pizzo, R., Polatidis, A. G., Reich, W., Rowlinson, A., Scaife, A. M. M., Serylak, M., Sluman, J., Smirnov, O., Steinmetz, M., Swinbank, J., Tagger, M., Tang, Y., Tasse, C., Thoudam, S., Toribio, M. C., Vermeulen, R., Vocks, C., Wijers, R. A. M. J., Wise, M. W., and Wucknitz, O. “The peculiar radio galaxy 4C 35.06: a case for recurrent AGN activity?”. Astronomy and Astrophysics 579 (2015): A27.