Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources

Martinez-Moya P, Niehaus K, Alcaino J, Baeza M, Cifuentes V (2015)
BMC Genomics 16.

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Abstract
Background: Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant with increasing biotechnological interest. In Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, a natural source of this pigment, carotenogenesis is a complex process regulated through several mechanisms, including the carbon source. X. dendrorhous produces more astaxanthin when grown on a non-fermentable carbon source, while decreased astaxanthin production is observed in the presence of high glucose concentrations. In the present study, we used a comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis to characterize the yeast response when cultured in minimal medium supplemented with glucose (fermentable) or succinate (non-fermentable). Results: A total of 329 proteins were identified from the proteomic profiles, and most of these proteins were associated with carotenogenesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and redox and stress responses. The metabolite profiles revealed 92 metabolites primarily associated with glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, amino acids, organic acids, sugars and phosphates. We determined the abundance of proteins and metabolites of the central pathways of yeast metabolism and examined the influence of these molecules on carotenogenesis. Similar to previous proteomic-stress response studies, we observed modulation of abundance from several redox, stress response, carbohydrate and lipid enzymes. Additionally, the accumulation of trehalose, absence of key ROS response enzymes, an increased abundance of the metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle suggested an association between the accumulation of astaxanthin and oxidative stress in the yeast. Moreover, we observed the increased abundance of late carotenogenesis enzymes during astaxanthin accumulation under succinate growth conditions. Conclusions: The use of succinate as a carbon source in X. dendrorhous cultures increases the availability of acetyl-CoA for the astaxanthin production compared with glucose, likely reflecting the positive regulation of metabolic enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles. The high metabolite level generated in this pathway could increase the cellular respiration rate, producing reactive oxygen species, which induces carotenogenesis.
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Martinez-Moya P, Niehaus K, Alcaino J, Baeza M, Cifuentes V. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources. BMC Genomics. 2015;16.
Martinez-Moya, P., Niehaus, K., Alcaino, J., Baeza, M., & Cifuentes, V. (2015). Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources. BMC Genomics, 16. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1484-6
Martinez-Moya, P., Niehaus, K., Alcaino, J., Baeza, M., and Cifuentes, V. (2015). Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources. BMC Genomics 16.
Martinez-Moya, P., et al., 2015. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources. BMC Genomics, 16.
P. Martinez-Moya, et al., “Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources”, BMC Genomics, vol. 16, 2015.
Martinez-Moya, P., Niehaus, K., Alcaino, J., Baeza, M., Cifuentes, V.: Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources. BMC Genomics. 16, (2015).
Martinez-Moya, Pilar, Niehaus, Karsten, Alcaino, Jennifer, Baeza, Marcelo, and Cifuentes, Victor. “Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous using different carbon sources”. BMC Genomics 16 (2015).
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