Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

Sadowski E-M, Seyfullah LJ, Friederike S, Fleischmann A, Behling H, Schmidt AR (2015)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(1): 190-195.

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Abstract
The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macro-fossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.
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Sadowski E-M, Seyfullah LJ, Friederike S, Fleischmann A, Behling H, Schmidt AR. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2015;112(1):190-195.
Sadowski, E. - M., Seyfullah, L. J., Friederike, S., Fleischmann, A., Behling, H., & Schmidt, A. R. (2015). Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(1), 190-195.
Sadowski, E. - M., Seyfullah, L. J., Friederike, S., Fleischmann, A., Behling, H., and Schmidt, A. R. (2015). Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, 190-195.
Sadowski, E.-M., et al., 2015. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(1), p 190-195.
E.-M. Sadowski, et al., “Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112, 2015, pp. 190-195.
Sadowski, E.-M., Seyfullah, L.J., Friederike, S., Fleischmann, A., Behling, H., Schmidt, A.R.: Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112, 190-195 (2015).
Sadowski, Eva-Maria, Seyfullah, Leyla J., Friederike, Sadowski, Fleischmann, Andreas, Behling, Hermann, and Schmidt, Alexander R. “Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.1 (2015): 190-195.
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2 Citations in Europe PMC

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Early Cretaceous Archaeamphora is not a carnivorous angiosperm.
Wong WO, Dilcher DL, Labandeira CC, Sun G, Fleischmann A., Front Plant Sci 6(), 2015
PMID: 25999978
New evidence on the origin of carnivorous plants.
Givnish TJ., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(1), 2015
PMID: 25538295

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