Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols

Klatte S, Wendisch VF (2015)
Microbial Cell Factories 14: 9.

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Abstract
Background In white biotechnology biocatalysis represents a key technology for chemical functionalization of non-natural compounds. The plasmid-born overproduction of an alcohol dehydrogenase, an L-alanine-dependent transaminase and an alanine dehydrogenase allows for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols in whole cell biotransformation. Here, conditions to optimize the whole cell biocatalyst presented in (Bioorg Med Chem 22:5578–5585, 2014), and the role of L-alanine for efficient amine functionalization of 1,10-decanediol to 1,10-diaminodecane were analyzed. Results The enzymes of the cascade for amine functionalization of alcohols were characterized in vitro to find optimal conditions for an efficient process. Transaminase from Chromobacterium violaceum, TaCv, showed three-fold higher catalytic efficiency than transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis, TaVf, and improved production at 37°C. At 42°C, TaCv was more active, which matched thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase and alanine dehydrogenase and improved the 1,10-diaminodecane production rate four-fold. To study the role of L-alanine in the whole cell biotransformation, the L-alanine concentration was varied and 1,10.diaminodecane formation tested with constant 10 mM 1,10- decanediol and 100 mM NH4Cl. Only 5.6% diamine product were observed without added L-alanine. L-alanine concentrations equimolar to that of the alcohol enabled for 94% product formation but higher L-alanine concentrations allowed for 100% product formation. L-alanine was consumed by the E. coli biocatalyst, presumably due to pyruvate catabolism since up to 16 mM acetate accumulated. Biotransformation employing E. coli strain YYC202/pTrc99a-ald-adh-taCv, which is unable to catabolize pyruvate, resulted in conversion with a selectivity of 42 mol-%. Biotransformation with E. coli strains only lacking pyruvate oxidase PoxB showed similar reduced amination of 1,10-decanediol indicating that oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate by PoxB is primarily responsible for pyruvate catabolism during redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols using this whole cell biocatalyst. Conclusion The replacement of the transaminase TaVf by TaCv, which showed higher activity at 42°C, in the artificial operon ald-adh-ta improved amination of alcohols in whole cell biotransformation. The addition of L-alanine, which was consumed by E. coli via pyruvate catabolism, was required for 100% product formation possibly by providing maintenance energy. Metabolic engineering revealed that pyruvate catabolism occurred primarily via oxidative decarboxylation to acetate by PoxB under the chosen biotranformation conditions.
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Article Processing Charge funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Open Access Publication Fund of Bielefeld University.
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Klatte S, Wendisch VF. Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols. Microbial Cell Factories. 2015;14: 9.
Klatte, S., & Wendisch, V. F. (2015). Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols. Microbial Cell Factories, 14: 9.
Klatte, S., and Wendisch, V. F. (2015). Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols. Microbial Cell Factories 14:9.
Klatte, S., & Wendisch, V.F., 2015. Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols. Microbial Cell Factories, 14: 9.
S. Klatte and V.F. Wendisch, “Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols”, Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 14, 2015, : 9.
Klatte, S., Wendisch, V.F.: Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols. Microbial Cell Factories. 14, : 9 (2015).
Klatte, Stephanie, and Wendisch, Volker F. “Role of L-alanine for redox self-sufficient amination of alcohols”. Microbial Cell Factories 14 (2015): 9.
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