Placebo effects in children: a review

Weimer K, Gulewitsch MD, Schlarb A, Schwille-Kiuntke J, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P (2013)
Pediatric Research 74(1): 96-102.

Journal Article | Published | English
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Of more than 155,000 PubMed citations found with the search term “placebo,” only ~9,000 (5.8%) included the terms “children” or “adolescents.” When all these papers were screened, only ~2,000 of them investigated the placebo effect per se, and of those, only ~50 (2.5%) discussed the placebo effect in children and adolescents. In this narrative review, we explore four aspects of the placebo response in children and adolescents: (i) the legal and ethical limitations and restrictions for the inclusion of children in clinical trials as well as in experimental (placebo) research that may explain the poor knowledge base; (ii) the question of whether or not the placebo effect is larger in children and adolescents as compared with adults; (iii) whether the mechanisms underlying the placebo effect are similar between children and adults; and (iv) whether mediators and moderators of the placebo effect are comparable between children and adults. We finally discuss some of the consequences from the current placebo research in adults that may affect both experimental and clinical research in children and adolescents.
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Weimer K, Gulewitsch MD, Schlarb A, Schwille-Kiuntke J, Klosterhalfen S, Enck P. Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research. 2013;74(1):96-102.
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M. D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., & Enck, P. (2013). Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research, 74(1), 96-102. doi:10.1038/pr.2013.66
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M. D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., and Enck, P. (2013). Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research 74, 96-102.
Weimer, K., et al., 2013. Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research, 74(1), p 96-102.
K. Weimer, et al., “Placebo effects in children: a review”, Pediatric Research, vol. 74, 2013, pp. 96-102.
Weimer, K., Gulewitsch, M.D., Schlarb, A., Schwille-Kiuntke, J., Klosterhalfen, S., Enck, P.: Placebo effects in children: a review. Pediatric Research. 74, 96-102 (2013).
Weimer, Katja, Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel, Schlarb, Angelika, Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane, Klosterhalfen, Sibylle, and Enck, Paul. “Placebo effects in children: a review”. Pediatric Research 74.1 (2013): 96-102.
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