The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries

Abendroth A, Huffman ML, Treas J (2014)
American Sociological Review 79(5): 993-1014.

Journal Article | Published | English

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Research documents a wage penalty for mothers compared to childless women. We demonstrate there is also an occupational status penalty to motherhood. Interrogating supply- and demand-side explanations of the motherhood penalty from the life course perspective, we formulate and test original hypotheses about the short-term and long-run career implications of parity-specific births. We analyze longitudinal data from the European Community and Household Panel for 13 European countries and eight time points between 1994 and 2001. Our fixed-effects models show that status losses for a first birth are not just short-term but accumulate over the career. The timing of a birth in a woman's life course matters only for older women, who experience a significant penalty to third births. Although the personal strategies that women use to minimize the career costs of motherhood (e. g., having only one child) prove ineffective, our cross-national evidence shows that public policies are linked to the motherhood penalty in occupational status.
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Abendroth A, Huffman ML, Treas J. The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries. American Sociological Review. 2014;79(5):993-1014.
Abendroth, A., Huffman, M. L., & Treas, J. (2014). The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries. American Sociological Review, 79(5), 993-1014.
Abendroth, A., Huffman, M. L., and Treas, J. (2014). The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries. American Sociological Review 79, 993-1014.
Abendroth, A., Huffman, M.L., & Treas, J., 2014. The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries. American Sociological Review, 79(5), p 993-1014.
A. Abendroth, M.L. Huffman, and J. Treas, “The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries”, American Sociological Review, vol. 79, 2014, pp. 993-1014.
Abendroth, A., Huffman, M.L., Treas, J.: The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries. American Sociological Review. 79, 993-1014 (2014).
Abendroth, Anja, Huffman, Matt L., and Treas, Judith. “The Parity Penalty in Life Course Perspective: Motherhood and Occupational Status in 13 European Countries”. American Sociological Review 79.5 (2014): 993-1014.
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