Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System

Peters C, Hermann T, Wachsmuth S, Hoey J (2014)
ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing 5(4): 1-34.

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Journal Article | Published | English
Abstract
People with cognitive disabilities such as dementia and intellectual disabilities tend to have problems in coordinating steps in the execution of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) due to limited capabilities in cognitive functioning. To successfully perform ADLs, these people are reliant on the assistance of human caregivers. This leads to a decrease of independence for care recipients and imposes a high burden on caregivers. Assistive Technology for Cognition (ATC) aims to compensate for decreased cognitive functions. ATC systems provide automatic assistance in task execution by delivering appropriate prompts which enable the user to perform ADLs without any assistance of a human caregiver. This leads to an increase of the user’s independence and to a relief of caregiver’s burden. In this article, we describe the design, development and evaluation of a novel ATC system. The TEBRA (TEeth BRushing Assistance) system supports people with moderate cognitive disabilities in the execution of brushing teeth. A main requirement for the acceptance of ATC systems is context awareness: explicit feedback from the user is not necessary to provide appropriate assistance. Furthermore, an ATC system needs to handle spatial and temporal variance in the execution of behaviors such as different movement characteristics and different velocities. The TEBRA system handles spatial variance in a behavior recognition component based on a Bayesian network classifier. A dynamic timing model deals with temporal variance by adapting to different velocities of users during a trial. We evaluate a fully functioning prototype of the TEBRA system in a study with people with cognitive disabilities. The main aim of the study is to analyze the technical performance of the system and the user’s behavior in the interaction with the system with regard to the main hypothesis: is the TEBRA system able to increase the user’s independence in the execution of brushing teeth?
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Peters C, Hermann T, Wachsmuth S, Hoey J. Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing. 2014;5(4):1-34.
Peters, C., Hermann, T., Wachsmuth, S., & Hoey, J. (2014). Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 5(4), 1-34.
Peters, C., Hermann, T., Wachsmuth, S., and Hoey, J. (2014). Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing 5, 1-34.
Peters, C., et al., 2014. Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 5(4), p 1-34.
C. Peters, et al., “Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System”, ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, vol. 5, 2014, pp. 1-34.
Peters, C., Hermann, T., Wachsmuth, S., Hoey, J.: Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing. 5, 1-34 (2014).
Peters, Christian, Hermann, Thomas, Wachsmuth, Sven, and Hoey, Jesse. “Automatic Task Assistance for People with Cognitive Disabilities in Brushing Teeth - A User Study with the TEBRA System”. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing 5.4 (2014): 1-34.
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