Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades

Heitkam T, Holtgräwe D, Dohm JC, Minoche AE, Himmelbauer H, Weisshaar B, Schmidt T (2014)
The Plant Journal 79(3): 385-397.

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Abstract
A large fraction of eukaryotic genomes is made up of long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs). Due to their capability to create novel copies via error-prone reverse transcription, they generate multiple families and reach high copy numbers. Although mammalian LINEs are well-described, plant LINEs are only poorly investigated. Here, we present a systematic cross-species survey of LINEs in higher plant genomes shedding light on plant LINE evolution as well as diversity, and facilitating their annotation in genome projects. Applying a Hidden Markov Model-based analysis, 59,390 intact LINE reverse transcriptases (RTs) have been extracted from 23 plant genomes. These fall in only two out of 28 LINE clades (L1 and RTE) known in eukaryotes. While plant RTE LINEs are highly homogenous and mostly constitute only a single family per genome, plant L1 LINEs are extremely diverse and form numerous families. Despite their heterogeneity, all members across the 23 species fall into only seven L1 subclades, some of them defined here. Exemplarily focusing on the L1 LINEs of a basal reference plant genome (Beta vulgaris), we show that the subclade classification level does not only reflect RT sequence similarity, but also mirrors structural aspects of complete LINE retrotransposons, like element size, position and type of encoded enzymatic domains. Our comprehensive catalogue of plant LINE RTs serves the classification of highly diverse plant LINEs, while the provided subclade-specific HMMs facilitate their annotation.
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Heitkam T, Holtgräwe D, Dohm JC, et al. Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades. The Plant Journal. 2014;79(3):385-397.
Heitkam, T., Holtgräwe, D., Dohm, J. C., Minoche, A. E., Himmelbauer, H., Weisshaar, B., & Schmidt, T. (2014). Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades. The Plant Journal, 79(3), 385-397.
Heitkam, T., Holtgräwe, D., Dohm, J. C., Minoche, A. E., Himmelbauer, H., Weisshaar, B., and Schmidt, T. (2014). Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades. The Plant Journal 79, 385-397.
Heitkam, T., et al., 2014. Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades. The Plant Journal, 79(3), p 385-397.
T. Heitkam, et al., “Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades”, The Plant Journal, vol. 79, 2014, pp. 385-397.
Heitkam, T., Holtgräwe, D., Dohm, J.C., Minoche, A.E., Himmelbauer, H., Weisshaar, B., Schmidt, T.: Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades. The Plant Journal. 79, 385-397 (2014).
Heitkam, Tony, Holtgräwe, Daniela, Dohm, Juliane C., Minoche, André E., Himmelbauer, Heinz, Weisshaar, Bernd, and Schmidt, Thomas. “Profiling of extensively diversified plant LINEs reveals distinct plant-specific subclades”. The Plant Journal 79.3 (2014): 385-397.
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